Cluster Development Models: Challenges and Opportunities
Md. Joynal Abdin,
мaster of Business Administration, Program Officer, Planning Monitoring and Evaluation Wing, Small and Medium Enterprise Foundation (4 Panthapath, Kawran Bazar Dhaka - 1215, Bangladesh; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Md. Mizanur Rahman,
Bachelor of Engineering, Assistant Program Officer, Technology Development Wing, Small and Medium Enterprise Foundation (SME Foundation), Bazar (4 Panthapath, Kawran, Dhaka - 1215, Bangladesh; e-mail: email@example.com)
Аннотация. Кластеры - концентрация гомогенных предприятий, производящих подобные продукты или предоставляющих идентичные услуги наряду с соответствующими предприятиями обратной и прямой связи в особом географическом местоположении, разделяющая общие возможности и угрозы. Известны кластеры, главным образом, двух типов: естественные и искусственные. Практика предполагает несколько моделей развития кластеров. Известны модели: Организации Объединенных Наций по промышленному развитию (UNIDO), Кластер Навигатор - Новая Зеландия, Кластер Плюс -Индия, Сеть TCI - США, Европейская Кластерная Обсерватория и т.д. Ни одна из вышеупомянутых моделей полностью не применима в такой слабо развитой стране, как Бангладеш. У Бангладеш есть ограничения для развития кластеров в финансах, технических знаниях, технологиях, организационных возможностях. Предприятия расположены в особом регионе, как кластеры, но у них нет связей между собой. С учетом этих ограничений авторы хотели бы проанализировать большинство доступных моделей развития кластеров и предложить новую модель, чтобы ввести ее и распространять в такой развивающейся стране как Бангладеш. Предложенная модель ориентирована на бедные слои населения, гибкая и одинаково эффективная как в любой слабо развитой стране, так и в развитых экономиках. В основном модель, предлагаемая в статье, является результатом опыта авторов и оценки потребностей для кластерного развития приблизительно для тридцати разнородных кластеров, расположенных в различных районах Бангладеш.
Abstract. Clusters are the concentration of homogeneous enterprises producing similar products or providing identical services along with relevant backward and forward linkage enterprises in a particular geographic location sharing common opportunities and threats. Clusters are mainly two types based of their origin i.e. naturally grown and manmade clusters. Cluster development practitioners introduce several models for cluster development. Notable models are provided by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Cluster Navigator - New Zealand, Cluster Plus - India, TCI Network - USA and European Cluster Observatory etc. None of the above mentioned model is fully implementable in a least developed country like Bangladesh. Bangladesh has limitation in financial, technical knowledge, technological, managerial capacity to dedicate for cluster development. Enterprises are located at a particular location like clusters but they do not have inter-linkages with each other's. With all these limitations in mind the authors would like to analyze most of the available cluster development models and offer a new model to introduce and replicate in a developing country like Bangladesh. Proposed model is pro-poor, flexible and equally effective in any least developed country and developed economies as well. Basically, the model offered here is the result of experience of both the authors from needs assessment for cluster development and development initiatives for about thirty heterogeneous clusters located in different districts of Bangladesh.
Ключевые слова: кластерное развитие, модель кластерного развития, развитие кластера малого и среднего бизнеса, кластерные методы, стратегии кластерного развития.
Keywords: Cluster Development, Model for Cluster Development, Developing SME Clusters, Clustering Techniques, Strategies for Cluster Development.
JEL Code: R11; C38; C31; O21; O41.
Porter (2003) defines a cluster as a "Geographically proximate group of interconnected companies, suppliers, service providers and associated institutions in a particular field, linked by externalities of various types" . Clusters contain a mix of industries related by knowledge, skills, inputs, demand, and other linkages. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) defines industrial cluster as: "Geographic and economic concentration of manufacturing activities which produce and sell a domain of interrelated and complementary products and having common problems and opportunities" . Cluster could be defined based on different parameters like activities, origin, size wise, technology wise, linkage wise, market wise, state of development and based on entrepreneurs etc. For example manufacturing cluster or
service providing cluster, naturally grown cluster or man-made cluster, growing cluster or declining cluster, export oriented cluster or domestic market based cluster etc. parameters could be used to define nature of a cluster.
Cluster development is comparatively a new term in Bangladesh. There was no uniform definition of clusters in Bangladesh till 2013. The small and medium enterprise Foundation (SME Foundation) defined SME clusters as "A Cluster is a concentration of 50 or above enterprises producing similar products or services and is situated within an adjoining geographical location of 3-5 kilometer radius and having a common strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats". Before that, Bangladesh Bank (the Central Bank or Bangladesh) published a short list of Clusters based on similar activities without any concrete definition of a cluster .
There are 177 SME Clusters in Bangladesh. Maximum 48 clusters belongs to Handicraft, 34
Agro-Processing/ Agri-business/ Plantation, 31 Light engineering and metal working, 22 Knitwear & RMG, 16 Fashion- rich wears, personal effects & consumption goods, 13 Leather making & leather goods, 1o Handloom, 5 Healthcare and diagnostic, 3 Plastic and other synthetic products, 3 Electronics and electrical, and 2 Educational service clusters in Bangladesh.
We are going to undertake and implement development interventions in the identified SME clusters in Bangladesh. Therefore we were searching for a suitable SME Cluster Development model to replicate and develop Bangladeshi clusters. All the identified clusters are naturally grown here based on availability of raw materials or skilled manpower or easy access to the consumers. We find difficulties to replicate any of the international models fully here in Bangladesh. Therefore we studied most the models of cluster development and would like to propose a new model could be suitable to implement here in Bangladesh and replicable in any other least developed country of the world. This model would be easy to understand without too much mathematical complexities, pro poor and flexible to replicate.
Problem statement and research question
Cluster development is comparatively a new concept in Bangladesh. There are 8 Export Processing Zone (EPZ) in operation. Government is working to establish 5 Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in next two years. Difference between EPZ and SEZ is EPZ are only for export oriented industries, on the other hand SEZ will include the industries producing goods for local market. Government has to provide lands, electricity, gas, and water, transportation facility to develop a new EPZ or SEZ. Production plants will have to be newly established there with other backward and forward linkage industrial support. But existing SME clusters are having all these supports in hand and running with few limitations / barriers. Entrepreneurs are operating their business for several decades. They have production value chain of their own with demand and supply. Therefore it could be better to provide cluster development support in existing clusters for better return within shortest possible time.
How to develop a naturally grown cluster? What are the development interventions has to be taken for cluster development? In which stage of development we would say an SME cluster is in developed stage? All these questions could be address in this article. At the same time the article would like to offer a comprehensive cluster development model for the least developed countries like Bangladesh. It would like to analyze most of the available cluster development models and identify complexities we are facing to replicate. Offering solutions to those complexities and proposing a new model for cluster development is the ultimate goal of this article.
Objective of the study
Major objectives of this research are to study most of the available models for cluster development. Analyzing the models and recommending a comprehensive implementable cluster development model for the least developed countries like Bangladesh. This model will be similarly adoptable for naturally grown spontaneous clusters or govt. / private initiated planned clusters.
This paper is the result of a number of SME Cluster development initiatives in Bangladesh. Experiences of SME Cluster Mapping study in 2013 and assessment of development needs on 30 SME clusters located at different 30 districts of Bangladesh. Secondary materials were collected and analyzed to identify a suitable cluster development model. As the initiatives have experienced difficulties in adopting any of the models here in Bangladesh, therefore the authors have developed a more customized model based of the needs assessment result and a series of focus group discussion (FGD) and key informant interviews (KII) of the stakeholders for Bangladeshi clusters.
Scope of work
The authors are two key members of SMEF cluster development team having experiences in identifying and mapping SME Clusters. They have experiences for conducting needs assessment studies and census in various SME clusters within Bangladesh. They are searching for a suitabl
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