Issues of development and regulation of the innovation economy in Russia
канд. экон. наук, доцент, доцент кафедры экономики предпринимательства, Санкт-Петербургский государственный экономический университет (191023, Россия, г. Санкт-Петербург, улица Садовая, 21; email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
вспирант кафедры экономики предприятия и предпринимательства, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет (191123, Россия, г. Санкт-Петербург, ул. Чайковского, д. 62; e-mail: email@example.com)
Аннотация. В статье затрагиваются вопросы развития и регулирования инновационной экономики в России. Рассматривается политика государства в области инноваций за последние годы, а также Стратегия 2020 с запланированными показателями и целями. Первые шаги по достижению целевых показателей уже сделаны: создаются объекты инновационной инфраструктуры, функционируют технико-внедренческие особые зоны, формируется инновационная инфраструктура в вузах. Кроме того, в статье анализируется законодательная база, регулирующая инновационную деятельность в России.
Abstract. The article is dedicated to the development and regulation of the innovation economy in Russia. State policy in the field of innovation in recent years, as well as Strategy 2020 with the planned indicators and targets, is considered. The first steps for achieving the targets have already been made: objects of innovative infrastructure are created, technological-and-implementation special economic zones function, and in universities innovation infrastructure is formed. Moreover, the article deals with legal framework regulating innovation activity in Russia.
Ключевые слова: инновационная экономика, интеллектуальный капитал, инновации, стратегия инновационного развития, стратегия 2020, интеллектуальная собственность.
Keywords: innovation economy, intellectual capital, innovation, strategy of innovation development, intellectual property.
With the adoption in 2011 of "The Strategy of innovative development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020" by the Government of the Russian Federation (Decree № 2227-r), the idea, that the only possible way to achieve the objectives of sustainable economic and social development of Russia is the transition to an innovation economy and social oriented development model, was formulated.
The state policy in the field of innovation is based on the interaction of public authorities, specialized federal and regional centers, educational system and business, for the purpose of full development of the innovation potential of the country. During the last 10 years the government has carried out some work on the formation of national research centers, development of infrastructure, support innovation activity, support creation and development of innovative clusters. A number of state boards and commissions on modernization, innovation and technological development of the economy were established (for example, the Council under the President of the Russian Federation on economic modernization and innovative development of Russia - an advisory body under the President of the Russian Federation created to provide interaction between federal authorities, public authorities of
subjects the Russian Federation, local authorities, public associations, scientific and other organizations in considering issues related to economic modernization and innovative development of Russia).
Nevertheless, achievement of the target level of indicators on the demand for innovation in the real economy, according to the state in 2013-2014, did not occur. Basically, it is associated with a significant reduction in the demand for innovation from the real sector as a result of the crisis, as well as reduction of budget payments on the federal target program "Research and development on priority directions of scientific-technological complex of Russia for 2007 - 2013 years."
Public funds for research and development in most sectors of the economy are spent inefficiently. The problem of ageing of scientific personnel is not fully solved, although the government has undertaken significant efforts to improve the situation . On the other hand, there is an increasing discrepancy between the employers' requirements to employees and the actual preparation of graduates in universities and colleges, that leads to the need to provide training of employees in companies , establishing corporate universities, which certainly have a posi-
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tive effect, but create duplication in the educational process.
The key problem can be regarded as low demand for innovation in the Russian economy, as well as the specifics of its structure: the priority of imports of ready equipment rather than implementing its own innovation.
Public and private sector do not show sufficient interest in the development and implementation of innovation. The level of activity of market subjects in introducing innovations is significantly lower than in the leading countries of the world.
For example, there is a low receptivity of business structures to innovations of technological character. In 2009, the development and introduction of technological innovations were carried out by 9.4% of the total number of Russian industrial companies, which is significantly lower than the numbers in Germany (71.8 percent), Belgium (53.6 per cent), Estonia (52.8 percent) Finland (52.5 per cent) and Sweden (49.6 percent).
The share of enterprises investing in the obtaining new industrial technologies is 11.8% of the total number of enterprises. The share of expenses on technological innovation in the total cost of production of the shipped goods, works and services of industrial organizations in Russia is 1.9% (the same
Some target figures on the implementation of Strategy of inno
indicator in Sweden is 5.4% in Finland - 3.9%, in Germany - 3.4%).
In Russia the system of state-private partnership in the sphere of implementation of innovative projects is not sufficiently developed. The share of receiving targeted budgetary financing is 0.8% (for comparison: in Germany - 8.8%, Belgium -12.7%). In 2011, in the United States the valuation of amount of research programs on innovations of small business and technology transfer was $2 billion. In Russia equivalent valuation in accordance with the joint program of the Ministry of Economic Development and the Government of the Russian Federation is about $67 mln.
Nevertheless, the state creates a large number of objects of innovation infrastructure. There are technological-and-implementation special economic zones (SEZ); in universities innovation infrastructure is formed.
In addition, companies working in the intellectual and creative field due to the nature of their activities create additional innovative product (though not always formalized) and develop intellectual capital .
Dynamics and the ratio of actual and planned performance of innovative development is shown in the table 1 .
development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020
Indices unit of measurement 2010 2013 2016 2020
Number of universities included to the top 200 universities according to the world ranking of universities (Quacquarelli Symonds World University Rankings) quantity 1 1 2 4
Gross added value of innovative sector % of GDP 12,7 13,5 15,2 17
Coefficient of invention activities (number of domestic patent applications for inventions submitted in Russia, per 10,000 people of the population) quantity 2 2,1 2,3 2,8
Share of innovative goods, works and services in total exports of goods, works, and services of industrial enterprises % 5,5 8,2 12 15
Intensity of costs on technological innovation of industrial enterprises (the share of costs on technological innovation in the total cost of production of shipped goods, performed works and services of industrial enterprises) % 1,9 1,95 2 2,5
Share of innovative products, works and services that are new to market in the total volume of goods, works, and services of industrial enterprises % 0,4 2 5 8
Share of new for the global market innovative products (works, services) in the total volume of shipped goods, works and services of industrial enterprises % 0,03 0,04 0,12 0,28
Total level of innovation activity of industrial enterprises (share of industrial companies engaged in technological, organizational and (or) marketing innovation in the total number of such enterprises) % 11 24 47 60
Place of Russia in the international ranking on the index of development of information technologies place 48 among the 45 leading countries among the 10 leading countries among the 10 leading countries
Number of innovation clusters that have received federal support after 2010 and that were able to double the high-tech exports from the date of such support, cumulatively quantity - 5 12 15
The main objectives and stages of innovative development of the country until 2020:
1. increase in the share of industrial enterprises engaged in technological innovation in the total number of enterprises of industrial production to 40-50% by 2020 (in 2009 - 9.4 %);
2. increase in the share of Russia in the global markets of high-tech goods and services (nuclear energy, aviation, space technology and services, special shipbuilding and others) to 5-10% in 5-7 or more sectors of the economy by 2020;
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3. increase in the share of export of Russian high-tech products in total world exports of high-tech goods to 2% by 2020 (in 2008 - 0.2%);
4. increase in gross added value of the innovation sector in the gross domestic product to 17 - 20% by 2020 (in 2009 - 12.7%);
5. increase in the share of innovative products in the total industrial output up to 25-35 % by 2020 (in 2010 - 4.9 %);
6. increase in the share of funds received due to the implementation of research and development work in the amount of fu
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