Архив научных статейиз журнала «Геоморфология»
ОЦЕНКА СОВРЕМЕННОГО ДЕНУДАЦИОННОГО СНИЖЕНИЯ ГОР ПО ДАННЫМ O СТОКЕ ВЗВЕШЕННЫХ НАНОСОВ РЕК (НА ПРИМЕРЕ ТЯНЬ-ШАНЯ, ПАМИРО-АЛАЯ, КАВКАЗА И АЛЬП)
МОЗЖЕРИН В.В., ШАРИФУЛЛИН А.Г. — 2014 г.
Annual denudation rates were calculated using data on the suspended sediments runoff module of the rivers. These rates vary widely: from less than 0.005 to more than 1.75 mm/year in the Caucasus, Pamir-Alai and Alps; from 0.002 to 0.4 mm/year in the Tien Shan. The most signiﬁcant factors of denudation cutting of the mountains are topography, climate and composition of rocks. The maximum rates of denudation (more than 1 mm/year) occur in the highest and most humid parts of the mountains (Western Alps, Western Caucasus, etc.). The minimum values of annual denudation rate (less than 0.1 mm/year) are observed on the lower mountain slopes with little rainfall and with resistant to denudation sediments (eastern slopes of the Lesser Caucasus, the interior of the Tien Shan, etc.). Vegetation and human activities can both enhance and suppress exogenous processes and thus the denudation rate. In all these mountains tectonic uplift prevails over the denudation.
ОЦЕНКА ТЕМПОВ ПЕРЕРАСПРЕДЕЛЕНИЯ НАНОСОВ НА СКЛОНАХ МАЛОГО ВОДОСБОРА ЛЁССОВОГО ПОЯСА ТАДЖИКИСТАНА НА ОСНОВЕ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ РАДИОЦЕЗИЕВОГО МЕТОДА
ВОЛЬФГРАММ Б., ГОЛОСОВ В.Н., МАРКЕЛОВ М.В., САФАРОВ Х.Н. — 2014 г.
A quantitative evaluation of the of sediment redistribution velocity within the Bodomo catchment (Central Tadjikistan) was fulﬁlled. On the base of radiocesium method annual soil loss was determined for different enclosures and their contributions to total denudation in the catchment were evaluated. It was shown that maximal losses (including the contribution of water and mechanical erosion) occur on the croplands and reach 50-90 ton/ hectare per year, while at grasses with different degree of degradation they are less than 4-10 ton/hectare per year. Sheet and rill sediment runoff constitute less than 10% of total denudation from the catchment, for the main contribution is that of gulley erosion and screes.
ПАМЯТИ ГЕННАДИЯ ФЕОДОСЬЕВИЧА УФИМЦЕВА
ПАРАДОКСЫ ГЕОМОРФОЛОГИИ ВОСТОЧНОГО ЗАБАЙКАЛЬЯ
ЕНИКЕЕВ Ф.И. — 2014 г.
В настоящее время представления о темпах преобразования земной поверхности, обусловленные эндогенными и экзогенными процессами, существенно различаются у разных исследователей [1-5]. Современный облик рельефа Восточного Забайкалья, как считает подавляющее большинство геоморфологов, начал формироваться после окончания эпохи мелпалеогенового выравнивания [1, 3, 6-8]. Логика рассуждений, основанная на сложившихся представлениях об интенсивности эндо- и экзодинамических процессов, приводит их к выводу, что наиболее древними элементами геоморфологического этапа формирования земной поверхности в этом регионе являются фрагменты мелпалеогенового пенеплена, сохранившиеся на водораздельных пространствах горных сооружений, как объекты наиболее удаленные от речной линейной и попятной эрозии. Подтверждающие это мнение “доказательства” присутствуют практически во всех отчетах геологических исследований регионального, среднемасштабного и детального характера, а также в многочисленных частных и обобщающих работах, посвященных различным направлениям науки о Земле [9-15].
ПЕРЕРАБОТКА УЧАСТКА БЕРЕГА ИРКУТСКОГО ВОДОХРАНИЛИЩА, СЛОЖЕННОГО ЛЁССОВИДНЫМИ ПОРОДАМИ
КАДЕТОВА А.В., РЫБЧЕНКО А.А., ХАК В.А. — 2014 г.
The paper deals with the mechanisms of abrasion destruction on a near-dam shore strip of the Irkutsk Reservoir within the urban territory. The survey of five profiles showed that the retreat of the shore at the case site constituted 1-3 m for the 2004-2006 period. The investigation revealed the main stages of the process development to be closely related to the water level fluctuations in the reservoir. At the low water level the slope of the shore is flattening and its profile become stable and equilibrium. At the high level the shore is washing out and its profile become unstable. Loams and sandy loams present in the section, marked by low firmness and small strength, cause the development of plastic deformations at significant moistening. The water level fluctuations in the reservoir lead to cyclical nature of shore degradation; physical, physical-chemical, and stress-strain properties of soils affect its rate.
ПЛЯЖЕВЫЕ ФЕСТОНЫ НА АККУМУЛЯТИВНЫХ БЕРЕГАХ ЮГО-ВОСТОЧНОЙ БАЛТИКИ
БАДЮКОВА Е.Н., ЖИНДАРЕВ Л.А., ЛУКЬЯНОВА С.А., СОЛОВЬЕВА Г.Д. — 2014 г.
The existing hypotheses of beach cusps development are considered Their formation is the combined action of the beach abrasion and accumulation processes depending on the bottom slope, bottom sediments, and wave parameters. In recent decades, there are active debates about the origin of cusps. However, none of the hypotheses fully explains the mechanism of their formation. Thence the existing of some yet poorly explored hydrodynamic processes near the water edge having a signifi cant impact on the cusps formation is supposed. A dynamic equilibrium of the beach at given seaway and the presence of rhythmic splash having suffi cient force to move sediments of a given fi neness are the main factors of the cusps formation. It apparently depends also on the type of wave breaking. Thus, the emergence of the cusps, their sizes and wave step are directly dependent on local morphodynamic parameters. Scalloped landforms are well represented along the shores of the Curonian and Vistula spits at the South-East Baltic Sea, and they are particularly unique in the lagoon shores. The combination of wind effected phenomena and wave action with of certain slopes of the coastal zone, leads to the development of a special type of acute-angled cusps with long "rumps" on the underwater slope. Long-term observations show that the cusps formation on the lagoon shores is quite possible and regularly re-starts under favorable conditions. At the spit shores different underwater slope parameters and seaway conditions lead to the development of the cusps signifi cantly different from the lagoon's ones. They are mainly the large forms with smooth contours and rounded tops.
ПРИРОДНО-ОБУСЛОВЛЕННАЯ НАПРЯЖЕННОСТЬ ГЕОМОРФОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ПРОЦЕССОВ ТЕРРИТОРИИ ДАЛЬНЕГО ВОСТОКА РОССИИ
ГОТВАНСКИЙ В.И., ЛЕБЕДЕВА Е.В., ШВАРЁВ С.В. — 2014 г.
A map of dew-to-natural "tensity" of geomorphologic processes in the scale 1 : 8000 000 on the territory of the Russian Far East was compiled. The "tensity" is the readiness of geomorphologic system to come out of the equilibrium state and risk of the catastrophic processes rise under the action of external and/or internal forces. Zones with different tensity of geomorphologic processes were distinguished; the tensity value ranges from 3 to 16 balls in the region and depends on the degree of ecologic hazard of contemporary geomorphic processes, depth of dissection, seismicity, precipitation, and presence of thick loose permafrost. The early stated supposition about increasing of the nature-defined tensity of geomorphologic processes in the North-Western Pacific Ocean coast area from West to East was confirmed. Thus, processes tensity of the Western Okhotsk Sea coast was estimated at 7-10 points, in the Sakhalin - 10-12, in the Eastern Kamchatka - 13-15, and in some Kuril Islands -at 16 points. An analysis of the areas with different tensity showed near-normal distribution of this parameter with the maximum at 6-8 points; corresponding areas occupy about half of the territory (47%). Potentially catastrophic areas (over 15 points) occupy near 0.3% of studied territory, but in certain regions such as the Kurils, their rate rise up to 49%. Sites with very high intensity (10-15 points) occupy 15.2% of the territory, sites with high intensity (5-9 points) - 76.2%, sites with low intensity (less then 5 points) cover just near 8.3% of the territory.
ПРОБЛЕМА ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ АРИДНЫХ ОСТРОВНЫХ ГОР
ЧИЧАГОВ В.П. — 2014 г.
The history of the inselbergs investigation is given. The features of the different inselberg types (structural, cut from the plain surface, and exhumed from under the ancient crust of the weathering) are described. Deflation in the arid plains manifests in perpetual movement of the thin sand cover of different coarseness along the predominant wind directions. In this connection the author suggests the term "deflation denudation" - the process resulting in the formation of the deflation-denudation peneplain. Deflation manifests unevenly, with pulsations, its most intensiveness corresponds to the periods of strong solar activity changes, for instance, Mounder Minimum of the Little Ice Age. The depressions surrounding the inselbergs were discovered and described, as well as the human induced transformations of the inselbergs.
ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЕ ГОРНЫХ СООРУЖЕНИЙ ТЕРРИТОРИИ ЮГА ДАЛЬНЕГО ВОСТОКА РОССИИ (СТ. 2. ГОРНЫЕ ХРЕБТЫ)
ГАВРИЛОВ А.А. — 2014 г.
В пределах рассматриваемой территории традиционно выделялись следующие генетические и морфогенетические типы хребтов (точнее, структур, их образующих, - А.Г.): горсты, антиклинали, брахиформные поднятия, вулканические формы , горст-антиклинальные - с проявлениями гранитного диапиризма, вулкано-плуто-ны, вулканические аккумулятивные поднятия, складчатые и складчато-блоковые поднятия, горсты , симметричные и наклонные горсты, своды и полусводы, симметричные, асимметричные и ступенчатые глыбовые поднятия, вулканические массивы . Геологические границы горных хребтов соотносились, как правило, с зонами разломов.
ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЕ ГОРНЫХ СООРУЖЕНИЙ ЮГА ДАЛЬНЕГО ВОСТОКА РОССИИ (СТ. 1. ОРОГЕННЫЕ ПОЯСА)
ГАВРИЛОВ А.А. — 2014 г.
There are several alternative tectonic models of the Far East mountains origin: geosynclinal folding, lineament-block neotectonic uprise, tectono-magmatic activation, tectonic and morphogenetic processes connected with local magmatic centers, horst-accretional and graben-rift tectonics, terrain or plume tectonics. By authors’ opinion the main features of morphostructure pattern of orogenes (deep “roots”, sub-parallel location, translational distribution of large watershed junctions, etc.) may be reasonably explained only on the basis of plume tectonics and of morphogenetic processes connected with magmatic centers. The structural frame of the orogenic belts territory is formed by linear systems of arch-block and tectonic-magmatic uplifts. Their origin and development are conditioned by periodic activation and general evolution of the Circum-Pacific deep faults of the East-Asian overplume mega-arch and its satellite magmatic centers during the sustainable Late Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic eastward migration of the front of acid magmatism and westward migration of the front of the mafic one.
РОЛЬ МОРФОМЕТРИЧЕСКИХ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИК И МОРФОЛОГИИ ПОЙМ В ГИДРАВЛИЧЕСКИХ РАСЧЕТАХ
БАРЫШНИКОВ Н.Б., СУББОТИНА Е.С. — 2014 г.
Morphological structure of the river bed and flood plane determines hydraulic parameters on the given reach of the river. Using morphological and hydraulic parameters of the river bed and flood plane streams one may assess their mean velocity and runoff with sufficient for practical purposes accuracy. The length of the designed river interval should by of sufficient length but less then distance between two adjacent bars. The accuracy of the assessments depends on that of the angle measurements between geometric axes of channel and flood plane and on the scale of the land survey on the designed interval. The morphology of the flood plane is of great importance too, especially the height of the beach barrier edge and the existence of vegetation on it, as they govern the dynamics and directions of the flood plane streams.
РОЛЬ РОССИЙСКИХ И СОВЕТСКИХ УЧЕНЫХ В РАЗВИТИИ ГЕОМОРФОЛОГИИ В АЗЕРБАЙДЖАНЕ
АЛИБЕКОВА Н.Ф., ХАЛИЛОВ Г.А. — 2014 г.
СОВРЕМЕННОЕ СОСТОЯНИЕ ОВРАЖНОЙ СЕТИ НА ТЕРРИТОРИИ НОВОЙ МОСКВЫ
ДАЙКОВСКАЯ Т.С. — 2014 г.
The New Moscow territory has low gully network density: 0.045 km/km 2, number of gullies per unit area -0.09 gullies/km 2. The local natural conditions - dominance of fl at or gradually sloping surfaces, low topographic range, dominance of relatively resistant glacial boulder clays on the surface, large percentage of forested areas -are unfavorable for linear erosion activity. Schemes of gully network density and number of gullies per unit area based on detailed topographic maps and satellite images have shown that the northern part of the New Moscow area has largest degree of gully network development, due to a combination of factors including largest topographic ranges and steepest slopes of some river valleys (mainly along the middle reaches of the Pahra and Desna Rivers). At present, the New Moscow area becomes intensively altered by growing human activities associated with its new development. There are already some examples of reactivation of the existing gullies and formation of new ones as a result of uncontrolled anthropogenic activities and unsustainable land use within the existing gully-balka systems in the study area.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ № 1-4, 2014 Г
СРАВНИТЕЛЬНЫЙ АНАЛИЗ МЕТОДОВ РАСЧЕТА ПРОФИЛЯ ДИНАМИЧЕСКОГО РАВНОВЕСИЯ
ЛЫГИН АН.А., ФЁДОРОВА Е.А., ХАБИДОВ А.Ш., ХОМЧАНОВСКИЙ А.Л. — 2014 г.
This paper presents the results of evaluation of several methods commonly used in coastal engineering practice for equilibrium beach profile calculation. Three approaches were used to calculate the shape of equilibrium beach profile: the Bruun-Dean formula, the method prescribed by Coastal Structure Construction Code, and numerical modeling by SBEACH. The calculated profiles were compared with the real profile of the equilibrium sand beach. It is shown that the Bruun-Dean formula gives the best agreement with the reality
ТИПЫ БЕРЕГОВ ОСТРОВА ОЛЬХОН НА ОЗЕРЕ БАЙКАЛ
КОЗЫРЕВА Е.А., МАЗАЕВА О.А., ПЕЛЛИНЕН В.А., ХАБИДОВ А.Ш. — 2014 г.
On the Olkhon Island we distinguished three genetic types of the shores: structural-abrasion, abrasion and accumulative ones. According to the dominating exogenous process these types were subdivided into abrasion-landslide, abrasion-fall; abrasion-aeolian and biogenic subtypes. Quantitative measurements of the shore length showed that the total shore length of the Olkhon Island including lake-like lagoons constitutes 225 km. Of the total length abrasion shores consist the 68% (153 km), structural-abrasion shores - 25.3% (57 km), and accumulative ones - 6.7% (15 km).
УНАСЛЕДОВАННЫЕ ПОЙМЫ И СЕДИМЕНТАЦИОННЫЙ РЕЖИМ В ПОЙМЕННО-РУСЛОВЫХ КОМПЛЕКСАХ
СИДОРЧУК А.Ю. — 2014 г.
During circumpolar distribution of the large rivers with large streamflow the wide floodplains with high amplitude relief were formed in their valleys. While the discharge of the river diminished this relief was partly reformed in the course of the lateral reformations of the river channel and ancient floodplains on the large areas took on inherited character. Due to their wideness inherited floodplains serve as a effective barriers between the erosion part of the river system (erosion furrows on the slopes and gullies) and balka-river part where transit and accumulation of the sediments by the most part take place. The most part of the sediments from gullies and slopes accumulates on the inherited floodplain. In the result there is very low correlation of sediment transport regimes even between close ranges of the river. Dating of the sediments proves that as largest basins on the floodplain are being infilled and the level of the floodplain rises, the rate of accumulation and barrier effect diminish. At last the inherited floodplain relief changes totally due to lateral and vertical river bed deformations and sediment transport in this river range is being retrieved.
ФРАКТАЛЬНАЯ ГЕОМЕТРИЯ РЕЧНЫХ СЕТЕЙ
СИДОРЧУК А.Ю. — 2014 г.
Fractal dimensions of the more then 200 large river networks of the former USSR were calculated. We use the term “fractal” as “a structure consisted of parts which are in some sense alike to the whole”. River networks don’t possess the complete self-likeness - fractal dimension changes with the change of measurer unit and the chosen length of the rivers. Therefore the calculations were fulﬁlled with the measurer length lying within the limits of 1-10 km. Fractal dimension of the river networks of the former USSR changes from 1.1 to 1.7, which corresponds to the aggregate length of the short rivers (1-10 km) consisting 20-80% of total river network length. Then all studied networks have fractal dimension more than Euclidian dimension of line (1) and less than Euclidian dimension of plane (2) as it should be accordingly to the fractal approach. There is a tendency for fractal dimension to grow with the height of the river basin and humidity of the territory. It is also strongly correlated with the network density. Fractal dimension as an index of the river length distribution has some advantages in comparison with the other morphometric indexes used. It augments signiﬁcantly the possibility of the quantitative analysis of the drainage networks. 14
ЭКЗОГЕННАЯ МОДЕЛИРОВКА БЕРЕГОВ ПОЙМЕННО-ТЕРРАСОВОГО КОМПЛЕКСА В УСЛОВИЯХ ВОДОХРАНИЛИЩ (НА ПРИМЕРЕ БАССЕЙНА Р. КАМЫ)
НАЗАРОВ Н.Н. — 2014 г.
On the coasts of water basins floodplain-terrace complex there are many exogenous processes of apparent minor significance which however have obvious impact on the coastal landforms. For almost half of the shore-line they are the single cause of the shore morphology changes. For instance on the surface of the shallows the deep (up to 40 cm) cracks appear, which are permanently widening due to inflation. The peat island had been anchored near the bay at the Visim village (the left bank of the widest part of the Kama water reservoir) and blocked the drift of deposits which caused the widening of the beach and terrace appearance. The tube erosion in the detached and sunk blocks, landslides and earth-falls leaned against the cliff. Diameter of the tubes reaches 1.5 m at the mouth, their length - more then 4 m. The most density of the erosion tubes (10-15 / 100 m) occurs at abrasion-earth-fall and abrasion-landslide types of the bank consisting of deluvial loam. Deflation may remove from the slope 5-7 cm of sand under the conditions of dry and windy weather during 3-5 days.
IX СЕМИНАР МОЛОДЫХ УЧЕНЫХ ВУЗОВ, ОБЪЕДИНЯЕМЫХ МЕЖВУЗОВСКИМ НАУЧНОКООРДИНАЦИОННЫМ СОВЕТОМ ПО ПРОБЛЕМАМ ЭРОЗИОННЫХ, РУСЛОВЫХ И УСТЬЕВЫХ ПРОЦЕССОВ ПРИ МГУ
ДЕДОВА И.С., ТАРБЕЕВА А.М. — 2013 г.