научная статья по теме Preconditions of systematic managing requirements to the training results of future it professionals in the system of vocational education Биология

Текст научной статьи на тему «Preconditions of systematic managing requirements to the training results of future it professionals in the system of vocational education»

DOI: 10.12731/wsd-2015-5.7-16 UDC [37 + 331]: 316.3/4

preconditions of systematic managing requirements to the training results of future it professionals in the system of vocational education

ovchinnikova I.G., Kurzaeva L.V., chichilanova s.A.

The article deals with an analysis of the fundamental differences between the existing federal state educational standards of HVE from the standards of the first and second generations, and especially the peculiarities of the development of educational programs based on the given standards. An overview of the requirements of international educational standards to the profile information systems is presented, an instrument of competence approach as a qualification framework is concerned in the article. The essence and role of these documents in the development of educational programs are determined.

Keywords: vocational education; competence-based approach; the requirements of labor market; qualification framework; the IT branch.

предпосылки системного управления требованиями к результатам обучения Будущих ит-специалистов в системе профессионального образования

Овчинникова И.Г., Курзаева Л.В., Чичиланова С.А.

Статья освящает особенности разработки образовательных программ в рамках компетентностного подхода федеральных государственных образовательных стандартов. Рассмотрены наиболее перспективные, с точки зрения авторов, инструменты управления требованиями к результатам обучения будущих ИТ-специалистов в системе профессионального образования - международные образовательные стандарты и рамка квалификаций.

Ключевые слова: профессиональное образование; ком-петентностный подход; требования рынка труда; рамка квалификаций; ИТ-отрасль.

With rapid technological and economic development of the IT industry, the issues related to the adequacy of the content of educational programs of the training IT professionals with modern requirements of employers, as well as modern accounting of the changes of labor market conjecture are getting extremely important. Currently, the search for answers to these questions is in line with the implementation of competency paradigm in the design process and implementation of educational programs.

The implemented competence methodology of the development of the third generation standards FSES enabled to radically revise these ideas towards greater flexibility and adaptability to manage the process of vocational training in accordance with the changing of requirements to the results. FSES character specifies new logic of quality management of vocational training, which is primarily connected with

the transition from a minimum of content to a minimum of training results, expressed in a competence format. In the SES of HPE of the first and second generations, the design basis of BEP was the content of education (initially a list of disciplines of the federal component and the corresponding didactic units were specified). In the requirements of FSES HVE for the first time, the requirements to the optional minimum of education content (didactic units) but to the results of mastering BEP, expressed in terms of competencies [5].

Working with competencies as a new «basis» of designing the content of the BEP [1] requires a clear understanding of what the composition of the main types of professional activities, competencies and in accordance with the profiling of training results (to know, to be able, to possess) are. Such a definition of training results through competencies makes it possible to develop a more accurate and diagnostically verified system of measurers of the level of the professional competence of a future professional at all stages of his preparation. [5]

The implementation of a competence-based approach is now considered to be a necessary condition for the quality of construction and operation of the system of vocational education on the basis of adaptive management in terms of taking into account international trends, state and regional characteristics and needs of the labor market, as well as ensuring the principle of continuous training of an individual. According to [5], currently in the native practice in the sphere of training IT professionals for solving this problem as a methodological basis, international standards, professional standards and qualification requirements for employees are used.

By the middle of the first decade an united group of professionals of ACM, IEEE-CS, AIS, and AITP developed the following set

of documents describing the standard models of curricula called standards of curricula (curriculum standards) or simply curricula: Computer Science 2001 (CS2001 or CCCS2001), Information Systems 2002 (IS2002), Computer Engineering 2004 (CE2004), Software Engineering 2004 (SE2004), Information Technology (IT2006), as well as a document Computing Curricula 2005 (CC2005) [11], having a general methodological purpose. Over the next five years (the process of the development of curricula received permanent continuous nature and is based on the principles of consortium standardization) almost all of the above documents were revised and came out in new editions.

The methodological basis of this system of educational standards is a document CC2005, in which, in particular, a contemporary and quite general interpretation of the concept of computing, as any technical work involving the use of computers [11] was formulated. The basic models of training in the field of computing (the training of an IT-specialist) in accordance with Curricula 2005 are: computer engineering (computer systems); computer science (fundamental computer science); information systems (information systems); information technology (IT); software engineering (software systems).

As an example, in Fig. 1 there is a graphical representation of the models of training in the field of computing Curricula 2005in accordance with the profile information systems, fully corresponding to the training direction «Applied Computer Science».

Oífiniütioii Level Technological Level

SoftTiiií Level Level oí Syitem Soflv.-are

Hiíiviíí Level

Trunm» Direction Theory <-> Applied

Component Component

Fig. 1. Basic models of training in the field of computing Curricula 2005: information systems

As we can see, the distribution of a theoretical and applied component of vocational education in accordance with the levels of models Curricula 2005 is:

• organizational (design and development of information systems);

• technological (application software);

• software (means and methods of software development);

• system software (architecture of software systems);

• hardware (computer equipment and its architecture).

Thus, the international standard specifies that the graduates of the considered profile should:

• understand the technical and organizational factors in their activities;

• be able to determine how information and computerized business processes must ensure the competitiveness of the enterprise;

• play a key role in determining the requirements for corporate information systems (CIS);

• develop the specifications of CIS;

• carry out designing and implementation of CIS;

• carry out testing and complex tests of CIS;

• be responsible for the optimization of business processes and etc. [11].

In addition, a sample list that includes additional recommended courses for each profile is specified in the standard.

Based on expert judgment and analysis of experience in implementing a large number of the most successful university programs in CC2005, scaled estimates of the level of graduate preparation for each base profile are offered (a fragment is presented in Figure 2). In the left column, the key technologies, training topics are enumerated, and each of the following columns contains ranges of numerical estimates of the importance of this topic for the profile, corresponding to the column. Thus, at the intersection of rows and columns there are two weight values of the scale, the left value corresponding to the minimum level of training in accordance with the given topic for the considered profile, the right one corresponding to the maximum level [11].

The above document can be the basis for developing educational programs in terms of choice of disciplines (modules) [8], as well as establishing the required level of formation of professional knowledge and skills in relation to certain areas and IT technologies.

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Fig. 2. Fragment of assessing the level of graduate preparation for each basic profile CC2005

Due to modern requirements to IT professionals, «over professional» competencies play a significant role. The study of current developments today, lying in the subject of this problem has led to such an instrument of competence approach as a qualification framework. A qualification framework is a tool for the development and classification of qualifications according to a set of criteria (descriptors), established for the determination of levels of the obtained training.

In this regard, we would like to highlight especially the work in which author teams made not only an analysis of quality management of vocational education on the basis of frameworks [10, 3, 4], but als

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