научная статья по теме SEISMIC EFFECTS CAUSED BY DISCHARGED WATER THROUGH THE WATERWORKS Комплексное изучение отдельных стран и регионов

Текст научной статьи на тему «SEISMIC EFFECTS CAUSED BY DISCHARGED WATER THROUGH THE WATERWORKS»

ВИБРАЦИИ И АКУСТИЧЕСКИЕ ВОЗДЕЙСТВИЯ ЭНЕРГЕТИЧЕСКИХ ОБЪЕКТОВ НА ОКРУЖАЮЩУЮ СРЕДУ

VIBRATION AND ACOUSTIC EFFECTSOF ENERGY FACILITIES ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Статья поступила в редакцию 22.01.15. Ред. per. № 2173

The article has entered in publishing office 22.01.15. Ed. reg. No. 2173

УДК 626/627

СЕЙСМИЧЕСКИЕ ЭФФЕКТЫ, ВЫЗВАННЫЕ ПРОПУСКОМ ПАВОДКОВ ЧЕРЕЗ ГИДРОУЗЛЫ

В.М. Лятхер1'2, Л.В. Комельков3, Г.Л. Мажбиц4

'ООО Новая Энергетика 125363, Москва, ул. Штурвальная, д. 5, корп. 1, кв. 129 тел./факс: 7(499)492-53-84 2New Energetics Inc, 563 Bartow La, Richmond Hts., OH 44143 тел.: 1(216)272-6765; e-mail: lyatkherviktor@yahoo.com 3ОАО НИИЭС Россия 125362, Москва, Строительный проезд, 7а тел.: 8499-492-71-25; e-mail: komelkovLV@mail.ru 4ОАО НИИЭС Россия 400005, г. Волгоград, пр-т Ленина, 72 тел.: 844223-43-00; e-mail: niies@insatcom-v.ru

doi: 10.15518/isjaee.2015.01.006 Заключение совета рецензентов: 26.01.15 Заключение совета экспертов: 29.01.15 Принято к публикации: 01.02.15

Рассматриваются результаты натурных наблюдений за вибрациями водосливной плотины Жигулевского гидроузла, поверхности грунта и жилых домов, расположенных на окружающей территории, при различных расходах и различных схемах пропуска паводка. Амплитуда вибраций каждой секции плотины прямо пропорциональна удельному расходу воды, сбрасываемой через секцию плотины, и слабо зависит от режима пропуска паводка. Обнаружен факт самосинхронизации колебаний отдельных секций плотины. При этом плотина начинает двигаться как единый жесткий штамп на упругом основании, а колебания поверхности грунта на фиксированном расстоянии от плотины резко усиливаются. Представлены результаты измерений вибраций домов разной конструкции на разном расстоянии от плотины. Выявлена зависимость параметров вибрации от режима пропуска паводков. Даны рекомендации по снижению вибраций домов. Определены параметры паводков, при которых вибрации домов превысят санитарные нормы.

Ключевые слова: сейсмические эффекты, самосинхронизация колебаний, вибрации, водосливная плотина, Жигулёвский гидроузел, санитарные нормы.

SEISMIC EFFECTS CAUSED BY DISCHARGED WATER THROUGH THE WATERWORKS

V.M. Lyatkher1'2, L.V. Komel'kov1, G.L. Mazhbits3

'New Energetics

app. 129, cor. 1, 5 Shturvalnaya Str., Moscow, 125363 Russian Federation ph/fax: 7(499)492-53-84 2New Energetics Inc. 563 Bartow Ln., Cleveland, OH 44143 ph.: 1(216)272-67-65; e-mail: vlyatkher@sbcglobal.net

3OJSC "NIIES" 7a Stroitelny Dr., Moscow, 125362 Russian Federation ph.: 8499-492-71-25; e-mail: komelkovLV@mail.ru

4OJSC "NIIES" (branch office) 72 Lenin Av., Volgograd, 400005 Russian Federation ph.: 844223-43-00; e-mail: niies@insatcom-v.ru

Referred 26 January 2015 Received in revised form 29 January 2015 Accepted 01 February 2015

üülil 70

The paper discusses the field observation results of the vibration of the spillway dam Zhiguli hydroelectric station, the ground surface and residential buildings located in the surrounding area at various flood discharges and various schemes of flood evacuation. The amplitude of vibration of each section of the dam is directly proportional to the specific consumption of water discharged through the section of the dam and weakly depends on the mode flood evacuation. It is discovered the fact of self-synchronization of the oscillations of the individual sections of the dam. The dam begins to move as a single rigid stamp on the elastic foundation. Oscillations of the ground surface grow sharply at a fixed distance from the dam. The paper presents the results of measurements of the different designs houses vibration at different distances from the dam and the dependence of vibration parameters from the floods skip mode. There are recommendations for reducing houses vibration. The research defines flood parameters, in which homes vibration will exceed health standards.

Key words: seismic effects, self-synchronization of oscillations, vibrations, spillway, Zhiguli waterworks, sanitary norms.

Сведения об авторе: д. т. н., профессор; член Академии водных проблем (Россия); инженер, президент компании «New Energetics» (США); генеральный директор ООО «Новая энергетика» (Россия).

Награды:

Первая премия Правительства СССР, Москва, СССР (1984);

Премия индийского общества сейсмических технологий, Рурки, Индия (1974);

Пять медалей Всесоюзной выставки СССР (золото, серебро, бронза) (19581988).

Образование: Московский энергетический институт; механико-математический факультет МГУ.

Область научных интересов: гидравлическое моделирование, гидроэнергетика, гидрология, сейсмология, механика сплошных сред, приливная энергия; ветроэнергетика.

Публикации: 15 книг, больше 200 статей и 70 патентов.

Information about the author: D.Sc.

(Engineering); Professor of Moscow University of Environmental Protection; member of Academy of Water Researches, Russia; Project Engineer and Researcher, President of Clean Energy Co.,(USA); General Director of New Energetic Ltd. (Russia).

Awards:

First Prize of USSR Government, Moscow, USSR (1984);

Award of the Indian Society of Earthquake Technology, Roorkee, India (1974);

Five medals of All-Union USSR Exhibition (gold, silver, bronze) (1958-1988).

Education: Moscow State University, Department of Mathematician and Mechanics. Master of Science in Engineering, Moscow Power Engineering Institute.

Area of researches: hydraulic modeling, hydraulics of the rivers, lakes and ocean flow; hydrology, water resources management, seismology and earthquake engineering, hydropower, tidal power and wind power construction and equipment.

Publications: 15 books, more than 200 articles and over 70 patents.

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Сведения об авторе: ведущий научный Information about the author: the Leadings сотрудник ОАО "НИИЭС ". ' ' Researcher of O.TS С "NIIE S".

Образование: инженер-гидротехник. Education: engineer hydrotechnician.

Область научных интересов:

гидротехнических сооружений. Публикации: 10.

надежность Area of researches: reliability of hydraulic ^

engineering constructions. Publications: 10.

Комельков Леонид

Владимирович Leonid V. Komel 'kov

Мажбиц Геннадий

Леонидович Gennady L. Mazhbits

Сведения об авторе: к. т. н., директор Волгоградского филиала ОАО «НИНЭС».

Образование: Московский энергетический институт (инженер-гидротехник).

Область научных интересов: надежность гидротехнических сооружений. Публикации: более 80.

Information about the author: PhD, Director of Volgograd branch office of OJSC "NIIES".

Education: Moscow Power Engineering University (Institute), as a Hydraulic Engineer.

Area of researches: reliability and safety of hydraulic structures.

Publications: more than 80 articles.

1. Introduction

Significant houses vibration in the left region of town Tolliatti (Samara area, Russia), adjacent to the dam Zhigulevskaya HPP on the river Volga (Fig. 1) was found in the spring flood of 1979. The tenants of the upper floors of the 9- and 14-storey houses, separated from the dam for 2-4 km, were the first who felt this vibration. It was also suggested that vibration of buildings and cracks in the cladding of buildings associated with passage through the hydro system high flooding. In order to test this assumption and search measures to eliminate or reduce the observed vibrations there have been conducted field, laboratory and

computational research, reflecting conditions floods 1979, 1980, 2005 and 2006 years. The main result of these studies is that under certain conditions the fluctuations in the individual sections of the dam on the General soil Foundation synchronized the dam begins to move as a single stamp with a large characteristic size equal to the length of the dam [1]. The radius of the attenuation vibrations zone from a vibration source is proportional to the size of the stamp, so increasing the current size of the stamp area perceptible vibrations propagating from the hydro system, growing and covering many houses. Choosing the scheme of maneuver gates of the dam, you can reduce the danger of oscillations synchronization in the low pass floods.

Fig. 1. The scheme of the waterworks and left surveyed houses

The composition of the basic structures Zhigulevskaya HPP includes Spillway Dam (SD); power house with Trash Construction (TC); groundwater dam and levees; shipping gateways. The power house is located on the right Bank and consists of 10 sections. In each section there are two units and four bottom of the spillway. The concrete spillway dam (SD) is located on the left Bank floodplain of the river Volga. Alluvial Sands with layers of clay and loam is overlain at the base of the dam. Alluvial deposits are underlain by indigenous clays. The concrete spillway dam Zhiguli hydroelectric station has a spread profile. The length of the dam is about 1009.2 m. Spillway front of the dam consists of 19 sections (38 spans of 20 m) and designed

to permit 40300 m3/s when the level in the reservoir at elevation 53.0 m. Section of the dam has a length of 52 m (the length of the side sections 62.6 m), the width of the sections 58 m. Weight of standard section is 98000 t. The main energy of the flow is extinguished on tread water fight, which consists of two parts. The first water fight is a reinforced concrete slab size 52 x 26 x 5,6 m. Two rows of power dissipaters and water power dissipater in form wall with trapezoidal cross-section are located on the stove. The second water fight is made in the form of plates with a thickness of 4.5 m at the end of which the second water wall is located. Expansion joints are located across 26 m in length plate.

The bottom of the concrete dam and left the village are alluvial sandy sediments with gravel-pebble layers. Confining bed lies at a depth of 40-50 m; groundwater level in the residential district is located at a depth of 1520 m from the ground surface. In the Nosov Street it is significantly higher at a depth of ~ 1.0 m.

Each section combines two spillway span of the light 20 meters. The head on the crest of the

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