научная статья по теме THE LARGEST OPEN WINDMILLS ON THE GROUND OR SEA Комплексное изучение отдельных стран и регионов

Текст научной статьи на тему «THE LARGEST OPEN WINDMILLS ON THE GROUND OR SEA»

Статья поступила в редакцию 31.08.15. Ред. рег. № 2334

The article has entered in publishing office 31.08.15. Ed. reg. No. 2334

УДК 621

КРУПНЕЙШИЕ ВЕТРОАГРЕГАТЫ НА ЗЕМЛЕ ИЛИ В МОРЕ

В.М. Лятхер

ООО «Новая Энергетика» 125363 Москва, ул. Штурвальная, д. 5, корп. 1, кв. 129 Тел./факс: 7(499)492-53-84 New Energetics Inc. 563 Bartow La., Richmond Hts., OH 44143 USA Тел.: 1(216)272-6765; e-mail: vlyatkher@sbcglobal.net; lyatkhervm@yandex.ru

Заключение совета рецензентов: 03.09.15 Заключение совета экспертов: 06.09.15 Принято к публикации: 09.09.15

Предлагается конструкция ветроагрегатов большой мощности с высокой энергетической эффективностью, обеспечиваемой за счет использования вертикального турбулентного переноса энергии воздушного потока и современной конструкции опорного и энергетического узлов с применением магнитного подвеса и линейных генераторов. Представлены результаты численного и физического моделирования.

Ключевые слова: ветроагрегаты, магнитный подвес, линейные генераторы.

THE LARGEST OPEN WINDMILLS ON THE GROUND OR SEA

V.M. Lyatkher

Tel.

New Energetics 129 Shturvalnaya str., 5, corp.1, Moscow, 123363, Russia Tel./fax: 7(499)492-53-84 New Energetics Inc. 563 Bartow La., Richmond Hts., OH 44143 USA 1(216)272-67-65; e-mail: vlyatkher@sbcglobal.net; lyatkhervm@yandex.ru

Referred: 03.09.15 Expertise: 06.09.15 Accepted: 09.09.15

In article propose a new type of wind turbines of the big capacity with high energy efficiency achieved through the use of energy streams of wind, not passing directly through the turbine. The design included the modern technologies of transport on the magnetic suspension. The results of physical and numerical modeling are presented.

Keywords: windmills, maglev, linear generators.

Виктор Михайлович Лятхер

Сведения об авторе: д-р техн. наук, профессор, генеральный директор компании New Energetics Ltd (Москва) и президент компании New Energetics Inc. (США). Лауреат премии Совета Министров СССР. Образование: Московский энергетический институт (МЭИ), мех.-мат. МГУ.

Область научных интересов: научные исследования и разработки в области гидравлического моделирования; гидравлики рек, озер и потоков океана; гидрологии, управления водными ресурсами, сейсмологии и сейсмостойкого строительства; гидроэнергетики, энергии приливов и отливов и строительства ветроэнергетического оборудования.

The idea of offered wind turbines of big power consists in use of effect of turbulent vertical hashing of the streams providing restoration of energy of a stream on the way to a back system of blades (fig. 1). This idea may be used in constructions of the largest windmills [1] or tidal watermills [2].

Рис. 1. Вертикальный турбулентный перенос обеспечивает восстановление энергии ветра перед тыльным строем лопастей Fig. 1. The vertical turbulence mixing go up the power of wind before the rear order of blades

Certainly, and in this case strict equality of speeds of a stream on all route of blades and outside the unit in the presence of selection of wind power is impossible. However, considering that the local potential capacity of a stream is proportional to the third degree of its speed, even small increase in local speed of a current at the expense of turbulent transfer of energy from the layers of a stream which aren't passing through cross section of the turbine, can give noticeable effect. Working blades of an aerodynamic profile in these installations settle down vertically (or obliquely) and move on the ring route of big diameter. For compensation of a torque and cross forces of the turbine can be placed one over another with the counter direction of movement.

Рис. 2. Идея агрегата, в котором ярусы вращаются в противоположном направлении, состоит в компенсации крутящих моментов и поперечных сил, действующих на роторы, а также в удвоении скорости пересечения й магнитных полей в генераторе, что повышает его

электрическую эффективность и снижает материалоемкость Fig. 2. The idea of the unit consists in the use of the effect of mutual compensation of torques and transverse forces, acting on the blades, which move in opposite directions; the effect of increase of efficiency of electric generator at doubling of speed of crossing the magnetic fields of inductor and armature of induction generator*

Рис. 3. Ветроагрегат на воде монтируется в сухом доке и на плавучем основании доставляется к месту эксплуатации, где фиксируется якорями или сваями Fig. 3. Wind power unit on the water. The windmills are complicated in the dry dock and go to the power plant area by floating

In this case presence of a smooth surface of the earth (fig. 2) or a water surface (fig. 3) can carry out positive function of the concentrator of a wind.

Quantitative effect of restoration of energy behind a frontal system of blades for real conditions of a three-dimensional non-stationary task it was estimated on the example of numerical model of the turbine reproducing the main features of the two-level multi-blade unit with oncoming traffic of circles of the turbine (fig. 4).

Рис. 4. Схема численного моделирования пространственного обтекания роторов, вращающихся в противоположном направлении Fig. 4. Scheme of spatial calculation of turbines of counter rotation

For calculations the simple model developing known ideas of "discrete whirlwinds" which doesn't contain empirical coefficients was used and approved on a big material of classical experiments. In fig. 5 results of calculations of the unit with a diameter of D = 2.4 m for three options of length of blades - 0.3 m, 0.6 m and 0.9 m are presented. Calculations are carried out for the same speed of a wind of U = 10 m/s and the speed of blades of V = 20 m/s. Loading (radial force), operating on one of 6 blades decided on a chord of b = 160 mm (solidity a = ib/D = 0.4). The turbine (top) rotates counterclockwise, bottom - clockwise. The beginning of coordinates answers the moment when the blade moves towards a wind. Apparently, while the blade is at the front loading negative (force is directed to the center) and the maximum effort to the short blade (0.3 m) is 3 times less, than on the longest blade (0.9 m) and points of maxima don't coincide. The maximum loads of blades of 0.6 m and 0.9 m are observed almost in one place and differ approximately at 1.6-1.7 time that approximately corresponds to a ratio of lengths of blades. The most interesting is observed on a back site of a course first maximum (240-275°) load of the short blade almost same, as well as on long. Stream speeds on the back party of the route of blades at short blades are much

Возобновляемая энергетика. Ветроэнергетика

higher, than at long (fig. 6). The maximum load of the blade towards a rotation axis in this case doesn't exceed 23N, and from an axis of rotation 13N. The total longitudinal loading operating on one turbine with 6 blades 900 mm high and a chord 160 mm, doesn't exceed 12N on the blade. Loading on the back party of the route, naturally, is directed from the rotation center

(positive), it pulses (the whirlwinds running from blades at the front) affect, but, the most important, is in a zone of the first maximum (240-275 degree) - load of the short blade almost same, as well as on long. Stream speeds on the back party of the route of blades at short blades are much higher, than at long (fig. 6).

Рис. 5. Аэродинамические нагрузки на лопасть разной длины (длина лопастей 0,3, 0,6 и 0,9 м) в 6-лопастном агрегате в зависимости от положения лопасти на трассе. Скорость ветра 10 м/с, скорость лопастей 20 м/с. Диаметр ротора 2,4 м, хорда лопастей 0,16 м Fig. 5. Load of one blade of the 6-blades two-story unit at a speed of U = 10 m/s and the speed of blades of V = 20 m/s. Diameter of the route is D = 2.4 m, a chord of b = 0.16 m

Рис. 6. Относительная величина модуля скорости потока перед носком лопасти в долях скорости потока на подходе к агрегату Fig. 6. The module of local relative speed of a stream in points of the route of blades at distance of one chord before a blade sock. Speed is measured in shares of speed of a stream in front of the turbine

Рис

. 7. Верх. Оптимизированная двухлопастная ортогональная турбина. Результаты испытаний в канале шириной 1 м. D = 200 мм, b = 30 мм, Lib = 4,16, bt/b = 0,5, затенение 0,3, maxCP = 0,661, V/U = 3,35 Низ. Трехлопастная модель ортогональной турбины. Испытания в канале шириной 2 м, глубиной 1,5 м, D = 400 мм, b = 30 мм, затенение 0,225. bt = 30 мм, H = 800 мм, L = 400 мм. 1 - U = 0,84 м/с, 2 - U = 0,68 м/с Fig. 7. Top. Optimized two-blades model of conventional orthogonal turbine. Test in the channel width 1 m. D = 200 mm, b = 30 mm, Lib = 4.16, btib = 0.5, solidity 0.3, maxCP = 0.661, V/U = 3.35 Low. Three-blades model of orthogonal turbine. Test in the channel width 2 m , depth 1.5 m. D = 400 mm, b = 30 mm, solidity 0.225, bt = 30 mm, H = 800 mm, L = 400 mm. 1 - U = 0.84 m/s, 2 - U = 0.68 m/s

The results show that if the diameter of the turbine is only 4 times larger length of the blades, the effect of transverse turbulent transfer of momentum is significant and the energy efficiency of the rear part of the track of the blades is almost the same as the front section. Without this effect, the back part of the track gives energy to 4 times less than the front. Thus, the energy effectiveness of the system is expected to grow at 2/1.25 = 1.6 times. For accepted overall sizes the power of wind power unit rotor depending on the wind speed of U before the windmill is determined from the formula P = CPpU3D{Lj2), where CP is the power factor

(efficiency). Efficiency of the best modern traditional windmills (HAWT) is not more 0.38 only. Optimized conventional orthogonal units with solidity 0.3-0.4 power factor (efficiency) up to CP = 0.45-0.6 (fig.7).

Thus, the use of the turbulent transverse momentum transfer will increase the efficiency of the best units to CP = 0.72-0.96.

The aerodynamic characteristic of wind power unit rotor was obtained also as a

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