DOI: 10.12731/wsd-2015-7.6-16 UDC 338.2
theoretical aspects of the concept of «innovation»
chabanuk o.v., Kvartalnova T.v.
Using of the concept «innovation» differs in the exclusive width and uncertainty. On the one hand, it's found historical genesis of the concept, on the other - extreme irregularity of development of the individual corporates, enterprises, national economies. Establishment of basic concepts that characterize the essence of any concept, is the starting point for the formulation of the objectives, structure and scope for further research. Existing definitions interpret the concept of «innovation», too «narrow», as noted only procedural nature of innovation, not focusing on that innovation, among other things, a product or service. In the article the essence of the concept «innovation» is investigated, differentiation of the concepts «novelty» and «innovation» is proved.
Classification of their varieties has great importance for understanding of the phenomenon of innovation. In this regard, the article proposes a classification of the varieties of innovation in a number of criteria. The author's interpretation of the concept of «innovation» based on the comparative analysis of the existing definitions of «innovation».
Keywords: diffusion; innovation; innovation activity; competitiveness; classification; novation; novelty; concept; service; effectiveness.
ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЕ АСПЕКТЫ ПОНЯТИЯ «ИННОВАЦИЯ»
Чабанюк О.В., Квартальнова Т.В.
Использование понятия «инновация» отличается исключительной широтой и неопределенностью. В этом, с одной стороны, обнаруживается исторический генезис понятия, с другой - крайняя неравномерность развития отдельных предприятий, отраслей, национальных экономик. Установление базовых понятий, характеризующих сущность любого понятия, является исходным моментом для формулирования целей, структуры и объема дальнейших исследований. Существующие определения трактуют понятие «инновация» чрезмерно «узко», поскольку отмечают только процессуальную природу инновации, не концентрируют внимание на том, что инновация, помимо всего прочего, является продуктом или услугой.
В статье исследована сущность понятия «инновация», обосновано разграничение понятия «новшества» и «инновация».
Большое значение для понимания феномена инновации имеет классификация их разновидностей. В связи с этим, в статье предлагается классификация разновидностей
инноваций по ряду критериев. На основании проведенного компаративного анализа существующих дефиниций «инновация», предложена авторская трактовка определения «инновация».
Ключевые слова: диффузия; инновация; инновационная деятельность; конкурентоспособность; классификация; новшество; нововведение; понятие; услуга; эффективность.
Establishment of basic concepts that characterize the essence of any concept, is the starting point for the formulation of the objectives, structure and scope for further research. Therefore, you should pay special attention to the study of the essence of the basic concept of «innovation».
Today, the concept of «innovation» is no exaggeration to refer to one of the most used words in the language of politicians, academics and businessmen. In this common definition and understanding of what is an innovation does not exist, although most believe that innovation should be an integral part of any organization, such as schools, universities, hospitals, and businesses. Last without any innovation not survive in the erasure of economic borders and the emergence of competition at the global level.
However, the understanding of innovation among non-specialists has been rather limited. If you offer an example of an entrepreneur in the business of innovation, it is likely to be called a variety of technical devices or services that have emerged in recent years on the market.
Many people believe that innovative companies - are the only ones that use nanotechnology or «advanced» information technology,
implement and implement discoveries in medicine, biology, chemistry, etc. In this case, the entrepreneur who «invented» a new way of bringing the goods or services to the consumer is not likely to consider himself an innovator and will be very surprised if it's business or rather the business model will be called innovative.
Referring to the definitions. In preparing the article is not intended to carry out a complete analysis of all the definitions of «innovation». It is advisable to base the study, of course with some caution, updating and analysis, how to interpret the concept of «innovation» a renowned expert in the field of management, Peter Drucker, who published in 1985 a work entitled «Business and Innovation». And although today 27 years later, much has changed in the business, and in innovation, the findings are noteworthy for the beginning of the analysis on the subject.
P. Drucker proposes to consider innovation as a tool by means of which the employer makes changes to the opportunities for their businesses . He believed that innovation is the systematic study of the changes occurring around them and analyzing the opportunities that these changes represent.
It is important to stress the difference between innovation and invention. The fundamental difference is that innovation necessarily involves the successful application of an idea, while the invention can remain «on paper» at the level of ideas.
The fact that innovation becomes so only after the introduction, after she began to benefit, said the Austrian economist Joseph Schum-peter in his work «The Theory of Economic Development» . From his point of view feature of innovation is that it allows you to create additional value, but this value appears only after implementation.
During this period, the majority of innovations were born in large companies that had offices on scientific research or in university centers. Today in the world there is another trend: more and more people who want to innovate, leaving the big companies and build their business by attracting capital from a variety of sources of venture capital funds to bank credits on their own homes. These people take risks for the sake of realization of their dreams. Thus, in recent time the term «entrepreneur of life» (lifestyle entrepreneurship), and entrepreneur-ship was seen as a way of life.
Since the release of Drucker, a host of examples proving that innovation is not always the result of a systematic search, and very often happen by accident. Such innovative for its time products like cellophane, nylon, penicillin, and many others were discovered by accident. The same can be said for the Internet.
Another unusual type of innovation are «broken» innovations that lead to the improvement of the product or service, but are unexpected for the market. They seem to break the market, creating a new market and new value chain. For example, the emergence of Wikipedia has created strong competition for traditional encyclopedias and dictionaries, and has created a new niche in the market. Market leaders such innovations mean the emergence of a new competitor, and where it is not expected .
Many people still believe that innovation requires significant time and financial resources, but do not forget that today is often the main source of innovation are the customers (especially in services) that are expressing their displeasure or pointing to a specific problem in the use of the product or services, set the stage for innovation. Small businesses more closely with consumers, the flexibility to respond to their
signals and change their strategy. In addition, many ideas have been ruined because of an excess of time, money and people.
Any businessman can innovate your company, changing the traditional view of the traditional processes were and making them novelty items that will win new customers, increase market share, and, perhaps, to become a leader in this market.
Thus, the use of the term «innovation» is different in exceptional breadth and uncertainty. This, on the one hand, it reveals the historical genesis of the concept, on the other - an extreme uneven development of individual enterprises, industries and national economies. The word «innovation» is derived from the English word «innovation», and the latter, in turn, from the Latin «innovatus». This word has historically meant consciously implemented innovation, targeted qualitative change in the state of an object or the established order of things .
To date, the concept of «innovation» the universal, which is widely used in all areas in innovation and is the father, for example those used phrases such as «innovation», «innovative process», «innovative development», «innovative activity».
Innovation, according to the generally accepted definition, is a process of development, deployment, operation, and the exhaustion of industrial and economic, social and institutional capacity, the underlying innovation. By innovation is understood as something new, and it is close to the concept of the invention (but not identical, as mentioned above). However, between the statement and the transformation of its innovations in innovation there is a significant, and sometimes very little, as discussed above, the time lag.
Establishment of basic concepts that characterize the essence of any concept, is the starting point for the formulation of the objectives,
structure and scope for further research. Therefore, you should pay special attention to the study of the essence of the basic concept of «innovation».
The position of authors «Great Dictionary of Economics» is interesting, it gives the following definition: innovation is a form of organization of innovative activities of people, which provides a purposeful change and the satisfaction of human needs, in accordance with the laws of development of the society, and which is one of the dominant figures in this society, the type of activity .
The position of the authors of «The Great Dictiona
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