научная статья по теме DEVELOPMENT OF WORLD-CLASS CLUSTERS IN NORDIC COUNTRIES Экономика и экономические науки

Текст научной статьи на тему «DEVELOPMENT OF WORLD-CLASS CLUSTERS IN NORDIC COUNTRIES»

Development of world-class clusters in Nordic countries

Y.V. Rybak,

аспирант, Киевский национальный экономический университет имени Вадима Гетмана (01601, Украина, г. Киев, Краснармейская 13/1; e-mail: y.rybak@invest-koda.gov.ua)

Аннотация. Статья посвящена раскрытию проблем развития кластерной модели в условиях глобализации, международного финансового кризиса. В статье проанализованы основные характеристики скандинавской модели развития, основанной на кластерах мирового уровня. Раскрыты основны аспекты кластерной политики, проводимой Скандинавскими странами. Проведены оценки эффективности кластерной модели экономичского развития. Определены основные проблемы и потенциал развития кластерной модели на основе кластеров мирового уровня.

Abstract. The article is devoted to the issues of clustering, which is process aimed at improving the competitive power of economies in crises tendencies all over the world. The article describes the world-class Nordic model based on cluster development, covers the reasons why the model has worked successfully in the past and stresses on the challenges it is being subjected to in the future. Present economic and social trends, including globalization and demographic changes, deep economic recession create significant challenges for the Nordic model. In order to overcome these chalanges of globalization Nordic countries are developing new model, which is based on world class clusters.

Ключевые слова: кластеры, конкурентоспособность, кластерная модель, кластеры мирового уровня, скандинавские страны, кластерная политика, глобализация.

Keywords: globalization.

clusters, competitveness, cluster model, world class clusters, Nordic countries, cluster policy,

World recession demonstrated the need for a new paradigm of economic development -world class clusters

The cluster concept has become a subject of intense research studies and economic analysis, reports starting with the study conducted by Michael E. Porter regarding the competitive advantage of nations. Cluster concept became economic phenomenon that is placed in a competitive context in which many businesses simultaneously compete and collaborate to gain different economic advantages. It's obvious, that the process of networking and clustering has led to improving competive-ness for the members of clusters as well as for the whole region and country. For success stories of cluster programme and initiatives government and its institutions must play a significant role in building effective cluster model by implementing cluster policy. The economic advantages of successful clusters have proven an important reason forthe implemention of cluster based model in regional development of country, especially in the process of globalization and during the crises tendencies all over the world. Global trends such as increasing globalization, demographic changes, natural resource scarcity, technology acceleration, global health challenges and social divisions shape business and society nowadays. Continued recession demonstrated the need for a new paradigm of economic development that is export-oriented, lower carbon dependant, innovation-driven and grounded in specific cities and regions - new high - level competitive clusters - such as world class clusters.

In Europe 2020 Strategy "for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth" it was stated that EU needed more world class clusters - that consisted of highly competitive enterprises in their field [1]. World class cluster model should include: open innovation approach that has changed context for innovation and provided internatiolization of competitive cluster structures in global cluster ecosystem; high-level cluster collaboration platform for fostering iternationalization processes and 3 pillars for the

competitiveness of clusters such as human capital, knowledge creation regarding public and private investments in R&D and entrepreneurship.

According to the European Cluster Observatory methodology world class clusters must have 3 stars. It's worth mentioning that European Cluster Observatory identified 2012 y. about 2037 clusters [2]. The most successful world class clusters were based mostly in megalopolis, among the most competitve are: in USA - "Silicon Valley", "Bangalore Cluster" in India, Fashion Cluster in London and Paris, "BIO VALLEY", "International Financial Services Cluster in London", "Health Innovation and Education Cluster in London", in Nordic Countries: "Medicon Valley", "Helsinki Smart City Cluster", "Oulu ecosystem cluster", "Finnish Cleantech Cluster" in Oulu, "Stockholm-Uppsala Life Science Cluster", "Stockholm Science City", "ICT cluster Copenhagen", "Copenhagen Cleantech cluster".

Nordic countries are competitive and innovative leaders with effective cluster model based on world-class clusters

We consider Nordic cluster model to be crucial tool for improving competitveness and the most relevant microeconomic factor that influences the levels of prosperity of a region. Economic prosperity among the regions of Europe is linked to the degree of cluster strength, so regions with the strong clusters are generally more prosperous and competitive. Nordic countries have created competitive economic growth model based on clusters and even during hard times for world economy - Nordic countries still remain the competitive and prosperous countries with strong ability to resist to the economic crisis according to the global ratings (IMD, WEF, World Bank, INSEAD, Legatum), favorable business climate withoutcorruption (according to the 2011 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index [3]), transparency and efficient financial markets and world-leading adoption of technology. Nordic countries during long period have been the "innovative-leaders" according The European Innova-

Экономика и предпринимательство, № 9, 2013 г.

МАКРОЭКОНОМИКА

tion Scoreboard and top global innovators occupying top positions in ranking "Doing Business"[4, 5, 6,

7].

Top scores of the Nordic countries proved that Nordic model based on competitive clusters with modern welfare economies is very successful at developing competitive economy with social security systems without harming the business environment. In the framework of cluster development programs the state provides flexible business-friendly enviroment for the entrepreneurs in terms of legislation (enforcing contracts) and procedures, tax system (resolving insolvency, paying taxes, incen-tives).universities and R&D institutions. Nordic public sector strongly supports business - SMEs, including collaborations, partnerships, huge R&D investments and financial support of science aiming facilitation of innovative development within the framework of cluster policy realization. There are various suppoting cluster programmes - most spectacular could be noticed in the cleantech, life sciences and ITC industries. The hypothesis is that enterprises, universities, R&D institutions benefit from favorable system and networking within clusters with substantial support of government institutions providing financial support in the framework of cluster policy realization. In terms of realization of new EU 2020 strategy it's recommended that cluster policy should not only be seen as powerful policy instrument to promote innovation, but also as an integral part of industrial policy that aims at preparing Europe and each EU- country member for global competition. Cluster policy of Nordic countries is aiming at strengthening innovations and research in companies and thereby promotion of knowledge-based growth in business and industry; strengthening public-private interaction and knowledge sharing and development of research and innovation between knowledge institutions and companies; facilitating of internationalization processes within Nordic competitive clusters with clear ambitions and substantial national and international growth potential; strengthening the capability of regional business environments for innovation and value creation by intensifying alliances between business environments, educational institutions and public sector; promoting sustainable growth in regions by developing competitive research and innovation environments within the eco-system; creating new innovations, products, services, companies and jobs based on top-class expertise in order to create internationally competitive centres of expertise in Nordic region. There are four principle types of cluster programs, however, the analysis of the objectives and strategies of the different cluster programs reveals the following main types of cluster programs [7]:

1) Cluster programs that focus on regional economic development - all programs that fit into this category aim at the promotion of regional growth through the development of business-driven clusters that are internationally competitive. Common to all these programs is a focus on specific regions that are geographically limited (Cluster programs that focus on regional economic development (Vinnvaxt (Sweden), Regional Cluster Program of Tillvaxtverket (Sweden), Arena (Norway)

2) Cluster programs that focus on the development of national industries -are aiming at developing business-driven clusters that represent national industries that are internationally competitive.

This type of program supports already developed regional systems of innovation in their efforts to utilize their potential for further national and international growth (Innovation Networks Denmark, OSKE - Centre of Expertise Program (Finland), Norwegian Centres of Expertise (Norway))

3) Cluster programs that focus on the commercial exploitation of the R&D potential of a country's economy - characterized by a focus on the establishment of clusters or centres of excellence that are either driven mainly by research actors or are aimed at bridging gaps between the research and the business sectors (Strategic Centres of Excellence (SHOK) (Finland)

4)

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