Статья поступила в редакцию 12.08.2010. Ред. per. № 85Э
The article has entered in publishing office 12.08.2010. Ed. reg. No. 853
FCV DEVELOPMENT AT NISSAN K. Yoshizawa, R. Shimoi, K. Ikezoe, T. Aoyama, T. Arai, A. Iiyama
Nissan Motor CO., LTD. 1, Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa 237-8523, JAPAN +81-46-867-5348/+81-46-867-5332; email@example.com
With the aim of dramatically reducing CO2 emissions from automobiles, we are developing both electric vehicles (EVs) and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) as zero emission vehicles. Research and development work on Nissan FCVs has been under way since 1996. The main issues that must be addressed to commercialize FCVs include: (1) to prevent performance decay, (2) to increase power density, (3) to improve subzero start-up capability, and (4) to develop technologies for reducing costs. This paper presents the results achieved to date and describes various activities under way to address these four main issues.
СОЗДАНИЕ АВТОМОБИЛЯ НА ТОПЛИВНЫХ ЭЛЕМЕНТАХ В КОНЦЕРНЕ «НИССАН» К. Йошизава, Р. Шимои, К. Икезое, Т. Аояма, Т. Араи, А. Иияма
В целях радикального снижения автомобильных выбросов CO2 нами ведется разработка как электромобилей, так и автомобилей на топливных элементах, которые характеризуются нулевым выбросом вредных веществ. Научные исследования и разработки в области создания автомобилей на топливных элементах в концерне «Ниссан» ведутся с 1996 г.. Основными задачами, которые необходимо решить для коммерческого освоения автомобилей на топливных элементах, являются:
1) предотвращение ухудшения рабочих характеристик;
2) увеличение плотности потока энергии;
3) усовершенствование системы пуска при отрицательных температурах;
4) разработка технологий для снижения стоимости.
В данной статье представлены полученные на сегодняшний день результаты, а также деятельность по решению этих четырех основных задач.
Organization(s): Manager, EV System Laboratory, Nissan Research Center, Nissan Motor CO., LTD., Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering, Professional Engineer (Mechanical Engineering), 2 best paper awards of ASME, best presentation award of ASME, 2 best paper awards of JSAE, good patent award of Japan Invention Society.
Education: Hokkaido University (1985-1991).
Experience: Nissan Motor CO., LTD. Engineer (1991-2003), Nissan Motor CO., LTD. Manage(2004-2007), New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (temporary assignment) Chief Engineer (2007-2010), Nissan Motor CO., LTD. Manager (2010).
Main range of scientific interests: fuel cells, batterys, internal combustion engines, flow and heat transportation phenomena, chemical reactions, etc.
Publications: ASME Transactions, JSME Transactions, SAE Transactions, JSAE Transactions, J. of ECS, etc.
Organization(s): Engineer, Advanced Materials Laboratory, Nissan Research Center, Nissan Motor CO., LTD.
Education: Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science (1996-2000) Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering (2000-2002). Experience: Nissan Motor CO., LTD., Engineer (2002).
Main range of scientific interests: Fuel cells, heat transportation phenomena, Visualization, electrochemistry.
Publications: SAE Transaction.
Organization(s): Manager, EV System Laboratory, Nissan Research Center, Nissan Motor CO., LTD.
Education: Waseda University, Mechanical engineering (1989-1995).
Experience: Nissan Motor CO., LTD. Engineer (1995-2009). Nissan Motor CO., LTD., Manager (2009).
Main range of scientific interests: Fuel cells, Fuel Cell Power Plant System. Publications: SAE Transaction, JSAE Transaction.
Organization(s): Manager, Research Testing Section No.1, Prototype and Test Department, Nissan Research Center, Nissan Motor CO., LTD.
Education: Waseda University, Mechanical engineering (1983-1989).
Experience: Nissan Motor CO., LTD. Engineer (1989-2004). Nissan Motor CO., LTD., Manager (2005).
Main range of scientific interests: Fuel cells, Internal combustion engines, Thermodynamics, Exhaust-gas aftertreatment system.
Publications: SAE Transaction, JSAE Transaction.
Organization(s): Senior Manager, EV System Laboratory, Nissan Research Center, Nissan Motor CO., LTD.
Education: Musashi Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering (1982-1985).
Experience: Nissan Motor CO., LTD. Engineer (1985-2001), Nissan Motor CO., LTD., Manager (2002-2008), Nissan Motor CO., LTD., Senior Manager (2009).
Main range of scientific interests: Fuel cells, Internal combustion engines, Main moving parts design and test for Internal combustion engines.
Publications: JSME Transactions, JSAE Transactions, FISITA Transactions.
Organization: General Manager, EV System Laboratory, Nissan Research Center, Nissan Motor CO., LTD. Doctor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering.
Education: 1982 Graduated from University of Tokyo, MS in Mechanical engineering.
Experience: 1982 joined Nissan Motor CO., LTD. Central Research Laboratory, Engaged in diesel engine and gasoline engine research, 1986-88, Visiting Industrial Fellow at the University of California at Berkeley (engine combustion), 1991 Doctor of Engineering (University of Tokyo, Mechanical Engineering), 2001 Joined Nissan FCV program and engaged in MEA and Stack development, 2008 General Manager of Fuel Cell Laboratory, 2010 General Manager of EV System Laboratory.
Main range of scientific interests: Internal Combustion engines, Spark ignition engines, Diesel engines, Fuel Cells.
Publications: SAE Transaction, JSAE, JSME.
Rising levels of greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide (CO2), are regarded as one of the causes of global warming in recent years. Activities by vehicle manufacturers to develop technologies for reducing CO2 emissions play an important role. In particular, programs are under way to develop electric vehicles (EVs) and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), which are seen as being promising future powertrain systems because they operate on electricity or hydrogen as their motive power sources that can be produced from renewable forms of energy.
Both EVs and FCVs can play important roles as zero-emission vehicles that emit neither CO2 nor exhaust pollutants. In real-world driving, these vehicles can be used in ways that maximize the benefits of their respective advantages. As shown in Fig. 1, using EVs as small vehicles for short-distance trips and FCVs as large vehicles for traveling longer distances is thought to be effective in terms of their present technical capabilities . At Nissan, we are planning to begin selling a mass-produced EV near the end of 2010. Development work on FCVs is proceeding toward a target market introduction in the early 2010s. The following sections describe the history and current status of FCV development at Nissan and issues that remain to be addressed.
Vehicle Size xee
Fig. 1. Example of the positioning of EVs and FCVs based on a consideration of current technical capabilities 
History of FCV Development at Nissan
FCV Development from 1996 to 2005 Nissan initiated R&D work on FCVs in 1996 and built its first prototype vehicle equipped with a methanol reformer system in 1999. That was followed by the development of the XTERRA FCV in 2001, which used high-pressure hydrogen as its fuel source. The XTERRA FCV was supplied to the California Fuel Cell Partnership (CaFCP) program for use in conducting public-road driving tests. In 2002, a prototype FCV based on the X-TRAIL sport utility vehicle was developed and approved by the
International Scientific Journal for Alternative Energy and Ecology № 9 (89) 2010
© Scientific Technical Centre «TATA», 2010
Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Fig. 2). Nissan then began public-road testing of the vehicle under the Japan Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Demonstration Project (JHFC).
Fig. 2. X-TRAIL FCV prototype 
A 2003 X-TRAIL FCV was then completed that was fitted with a newly developed fuel cell system, and limited leasing of the vehicle was launched in December 2003. Subsequently, a 2005 X-TRAIL FCV was newly developed (Fig. 3) that was approved by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in December 2005 . Nissan began leasing the vehicle to the Kanagawa prefectural government and to the city of Yokohama in April 2006, as the successor to the 2003 X-TRAIL FCV that had been leased to them on a limited basis. Testdrive sessions that enabled ordinary customers to actually test-drive an FCV were held every other week at Nissan's corporate headquarters in Tokyo. In addition, the X-TRAIL FCV was put in service in February 2007 as the world's first commercial FCV taxi , thereby providing opportunities for a broad spectrum of the general public to experience the performance and attractiveness of FCVs.
A brief explanation is given here of the 2005 X-TRAIL FCV model. Among other new technologies, this FCV is fitted with a new fuel cell stack that was developed in-house at Nissan. Compared with the previous 2003 FCV model, the vehicle performance of the 2005 X-TRAIL FCV has been markedly improved, particularly its driving range. In terms of practicality under ordinary operating environments, this FCV attains a level of performance comparable to that of conventional vehicles powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE).
Specifications of ,
Fig. 3. 2005 X-TRAIL FCV model 
2005 X-TRAIL FCV Specification
The major specifications of the 2005 X-TRAIL FCV models are given in Table 1. Previously, the following technologies were respectively accumulated at Nissan in the process of developing the Hypermini electric vehicle, Tino Hybrid vehicle and the AD Van CNGV that operates on compressed natural gas:
(1) a high-voltage traction motor and a lithiumion-battery system,
(2) an energy control system
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