ЭНЕРГЕТИКА И ЭКОЛОГИЯ
ENERGY AND ECOLOGY
PACS: 89.30.g; 01.75.+m; 87.23.n; 89.30.Ee; 89.30.Jj
ВВЕДЕНИЕ В РЕГИОНАЛЬНЫЙ КОНЦЕПТУАЛЬНЫЙ ПРОЕКТ ПО ЧИСТОЙ ЭНЕРГЕТИКЕ ДЛЯ ТУРЦИИ, КАВКАЗА, ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ АЗИИ
Г.И. Исаков , Айфер Везироглу , Хакан С. Сойхан , В.Г. Исакова4, Гокан Джошкун3
'Институт физики Национальной академии наук Азербайджана AZ-1143, пр. Г. Джавида, 33, Баку, Азербайджан, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 2Международная ассоциация водородной энергетики, Исследовательский институт чистой энергетики, Университет Майами Корал Гейблс, FL 33124, США, e-mail: email@example.com 3Университет Сакарья, инженерный факультет Есентепе Кампус, 54187, Сакарья, Турция, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 4Бакинский государственный университет AZ 1148, ул. Захида Халилова, д.32, Баку, Азербайджан, e-mail: email@example.com
В статье анализируется возможность создания совместной долгосрочной стратегической региональной энергетической программы для Турции, Азербайджана, Грузии, Туркменистана, Казахстана, Узбекистана, России и Ирака. Показана разработка перспектив производства электроэнергии в Турции с использованием источников чистой энергии, таких как гидроэнергетика, солнечная энергетика, водородная энергетика и др. Проанализирована возможность экспорта электроэнергии Турцией в соседние страны в пиковые периоды через развитие гидроэнергетики. Показаны перспективы использования доходов от транзитных тарифов нефтяных и газовых трубопроводов, очистных заводов и других экономически выгодных предприятий для развития альтернативной энергетики. Рекомендована основная стратегии привлечения инвестиций в альтернативную энергетику и производство водорода.
INTRODUCTION FOR REGIONAL CONCEPTUAL CLEAN ENERGY PROJECT FOR TURKEY, CAUCASIA, CENTRAL ASIA
G.I. Isakov1, Ayfer Veziroglu2, Hakan S. Soyhan3, V.G. Isakova4, Gokan Coskun3
'Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Azerbaijan, AZ-1143, H. Javid av., 33, Baku, Azerbaijan, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org international Association for Hydrogen Energy, Clean Energy Research Institute, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA, e-mail: email@example.com 3Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Esentepe Campus, 54187, Sakarya, Turkey, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 4Baku State University, AZ 1148, Zahid Khalilov str, 23, Baku, Azerbaijan, e-mail: email@example.com
The article analyzes the possibility of establishing a coherent long-term strategic regional energy program of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Russia and Iraq. Development perspectives of the production of electric power in Turkey are shown by using clean energy sources such as hydropower, solar energy, hydrogen energy, and others. The possibility of Turkey's exports of electric power to neighbouring countries in the peak hours, through the development of hydroelectric industry is analyzed. Perspectives for the use of revenues from transit tariffs oil and gas pipelines, refineries and other economic enterprises for the development of alternative energy industry are shown. Policy principles to attract investment for the use of alternative energy sources and production of hydrogen are recommended.
Long-term projects, creation of strategic plans and programs in the field of energy and economy are vital political and economic foundations of every nation,
region and the world. All forecasts, strategic and governmental plans are also important priorities of energy independence of every state. In the early twentieth century energy independent countries estimated the number of its own energy resources. Since
the second half of the twentieth century, the processes of globalization have changed the principles of energy independence. In the twenty first century, the priorities of energy independence are equally applicable to all countries, regardless of their own energy resources such as oil, gas and coal. Since the current energy independence States had not estimated its rich traditional energy sources. In today's world, energy and economic independence of States defines their level of development of science, the ability of their participation and integration into regional and global processes. Today an important element of regional and global science and energy integration processes are the oil and gas pipelines, the combined electricity systems.
The world's reserves for oil, natural gas and other traditional energy resources are limited. However, the modern world economy is built on traditional energy resources requires wasteful use of oil, gas and coal. Therefore, priority of every country is the future stable and dynamic functioning of its energy and the economy. Future energy industry will be created using alternative energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, sea wave energy, geothermal energy, water energy, biomass energy. The priority of the future energy is the hydrogen energy. All land, air, surface and underwater vehicles will operate on the basis of hydrogen. Based on the foregoing, the Conference of clean energy sources of the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resource of Turkey with the participation of leading experts of the U.S. is an important event both for Turkey itself and for the Caucasus and Central Asian region .
Regional and global energy
Since ancient times and today's day, science and commerce had the regional and global significance. A striking example of regional and global nature of science is the creation of ancient science centers and observatories, with the participation of top scientists from all regions and the world. An excellent example of regional and global nature of trade is the Great Silk Road, or the system of the Great Silk Road, covering more regions of China, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, the entire Caspian region, the Caucasus, Turkey and Europe. Since the twentieth century underground oil lakes, rivers of oil, natural gas storage and gas corridors began to run aboveground pipelines, uniting countries and entire regions. Oil, crossing oceans on tankers, electrical transmission lines, which took place on mountains, the valleys and rocks have become the most important factor of regional and global energy and the economy.
This article is the first in a series of articles on regional and global significance of traditional and alternative energy, covering the Caspian and the Black Sea region, Russia, Central Asia, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, etc. This article can be viewed as an introduction to the concept development of clean energy in Turkey, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Proved reserves of oil and natural gas of close neighbors to Turkey
Turkey has more than 1% of the world's reserves stockpile of coal, geothermal, and hydroelectricity. Given that the population of Turkey, too, is more than 1% of the world's population, then on coal, geothermal, and hydro energy reserves Turkey occupies a middle ground. However, developing countries in the world defined by United Nations Human Development Index . Turkey on the Human Development Index in the world, took 84th - rank. Oil and natural gas reserves Turkey are negligible and therefore not included in the BP statistics. Table 1 and 2 presents the proven reserves of oil and natural gas close to Turkey's neighbours: Iran, Iraq, Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan. The reserves of these countries were selected from BP statistics . In both tables Index N1 shows the location of the country's proven reserves of oil and natural gas in the world. N2 - Human Development Index.
Разведанные запасы нефти, 2006 г.
Proved oil reserves, 2006
N1 n2 Country 1000-106 tonnes 1000 106 barrels Share of total R/P ratio
2 94 Iran 18.9 137.5 11.4% 86.7
3 Iraq 15.5 115.0 9.5% *
7 67 Russia 10.9 79.5 6.6% 22.3
9 73 Kazakhstan 5,5 39,8 3,3% 76,5
20 98 Azerbaijan 1.0 7.0 0.6% 29.3
*Indicates that Iraq's proved oil reserves enough for more than 100 years.
Разведанные запасы природного газа, 2006 г.
Proved natural gas reserves, 2006
N1 n2 Country 1012 feet 1012 m3 Share of total R/P ratio
1 67 Russia 1682.07 47.65 26.3% 77.8
2 94 Iran 992.99 28.13 15.5% *
10 Iraq 111.90 3.17 1.7% *
11 73 Kazakhstan 105.90 3.00 1.7% *
12 109 Turkmenistan 100.96 2.86 1.6% 46.0
20 113 Uzbekistan 66.01 1.87 1.0% 33.7
22 98 Azerbaijan 47.66 1.35 0.7% *
*Indicates that the proved gas reserves of Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan enough for more than 100 years.
Table 1 and Table 2 show that only Russia and Kazakhstan but Turkey on the Human Development Index are leading. Iran, Iraq, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan, despite the enormous oil reserves on Human Development Index are lower than Turkey.
Azerbaijan population is 10 times less than Turkey. In Azerbaijan the proven oil reserves are 0.6%, that of natural gas is 0.7% of world capacity. On oil and natural gas reserves Azerbaijan takes the 20th - about 22nd rank in the world.
The population of Iraq is 3 times less than Turkey. Iraq possesses 9.7% of the world's oil reserves, 1.7% -of natural gas. On oil reserves Iraq takes the 3d place and on natural gas - the 10th in the world.
The population of Kazakhstan is 3.5 times less than Turkey. However, with 3.3% of the world's oil and 1.7% of natural gas reserves Kazakhstan occupies respectively the 7th and the 11th - rank in the world on these hydrocarbon reserves.
According to the proven reserves of natural gas Turkmenistan possesses 1.6% of world reserves of natural gas and takes the 12th rank in the world. According to the unproved reserves of natural gas Turkmenistan has 3% of the world's reserves. Turkey population is 16 times more, than Turkmenistan.
The population of Russia is 2 times more, than Turkey. On proven oil reserves Russia possesses 6.6% of the world's capacity and takes the 7th rank in the world. On proven natural gas reserves Russia tak
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