научная статья по теме REVIEW OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAWS AND POLICY PROVISIONS IN 22 COUNTRIES AND TWO REGIONS: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICYMAKERS Комплексное изучение отдельных стран и регионов

Текст научной статьи на тему «REVIEW OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAWS AND POLICY PROVISIONS IN 22 COUNTRIES AND TWO REGIONS: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICYMAKERS»

информация в области альтернативной энергетики

information on renewable energy

review of energy efficiency laws and policy provisions in 22 countries and two regions: recommendations for policymakers*

A.V. Pasoyan Alliance to Save Energy Armenia office: Tumanyan str. 8, Suite 430, Yerevan 375010 Headquarters in the U.S.: 1200 18th St., NW, Suite 900, DC 20036 Tel./Fax: 3741.547312, mobile: 3749(1)415677, e-mail: astghine@arminco.com; apasoyan@ase.org

http://www.ase.org, http://www.munee.org

Education: M.A., Environmental Management, Brown University, Center for Environmental I Studies, Providence, RI, 2001. B.A. Management and International Economic Relations, State | Institute of Economics, Department of General Economics, Yerevan, Armenia, 1999.

Field of activity and professional interests: Specialist in energy efficiency policy in CEE&CIS, I managing overall research effort on policy and technical trends and issues in the Urban Heating sector, as well as managing and effort to create secondary legislation for the Energy efficiency and renewable energy law in Armenia. This includes economic modeling skills and investment climate for energy efficiency in Armenia and other countries in transition. Managing | effort to assist housing associations in Armenia and Moldova to look at heating and various energy efficiency options.

Membership: Member and Consultant, International Interdisciplinary Environmental Association, Assumption College, U.S.A. Coordinator, Yerevan Cambridge Sister Cities Association. Publications: 10 publications.

In most instances, the Energy Efficiency Law is designed on the basis of an energy sector development strategy, which can be either an independent document, or the strategy principles may be defined in the Energy Law of the country. Such strategy document presents a government consensus on the importance of energy efficiency, and specific objectives to be accomplished with the implementation of EE measures. For some countries energy efficiency is a means for achieving energy security, reducing reliance on fuel imports, solving local and regional environmental problems, reducing the energy intensity of the economy, while achieving economic savings through application of energy efficient technologies.

The legal documents containing the state EE policy provisions vary from country to country. In some cases the overall Energy Law contains a section on Energy Efficiency, in others EE Law (may be called Energy Conservation Law, or Energy Saving Law or Energy Management Law) is a separate legal document, in others renewable energy promotion is included in the legal act promoting EE.

The summary contains information pertaining to a variety of energy efficiency laws and regulations, including (i) equipment energy efficiency standards, certification and labeling, (ii) industrial and power generation regulations, (iii) economic and financial incentives for energy efficiency measures, (iv) sanctions for wasteful energy practices, (v) energy audits and supervision; (vi) energy efficiency funds, (vii) energy efficiency institutions; and (viii) other fields regulated.

The report further discusses the performance of some of these laws and provides recommendations for policy makers in other countries across the region based on in-

Abstract

The present report is a summary review of existing energy efficiency laws and regulations in 22 countries and two regions including: the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Armenia, Denmark, Estonia, the European Union (EU), France, Germany, Georgia, Great Britain, Japan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, the Russian Federation, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Armenia, the Czech Republic and the United States of America (U.S.A).This information was collected as part of Alliance to Save Energy efforts to draft primary energy saving and renewable energy legislation for Armenia during 2003 within the frames of technical assistance from the United States Agency for International Development under the Municipal Network for Energy Efficiency. The study was further supplemented by the Alliance Serbia office efforts in RENUER countries.

The majority of surveyed countries' Governments started supporting policy attempts to improve energy efficiency (EE) starting from the 1990's, some attempts stayed rhetoric, some merely reformulated the Soviet energy "norms" and little changed in reality, while some policies were taking hold and achieving real change. These reforms were stimulated by the rising energy prices, growing energy demands, propaganda of sustainable energy with environmental consciousness growing after Rio Summit, and for the Southeast Europe and Central Asia - the collapse of the Soviet Union with the consequent market liberalization which eliminated the energy market distortions and subsidies, creating real need for efficient use of energy resources.

Статья поступила в редакцию 18.10.2005. The article has entered in publishing office 18.10.2005.

* Статья была представлена в виде доклада на Второй конференции по возобновляемой энергетики «Энергия будущего», проходившей в Ереване 27-28 июня 2005 г.

sights from our partners in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Serbia. The recommendations have focused on the challenge of creating an enabling environment for an energy efficient market.

General Energy Efficiency Policies

The majority of surveyed countries' Governments started supporting policy attempts to improve energy efficiency (EE) starting from the 1990's, some attempts stayed rhetoric, some merely reformulated the Soviet energy "norms" and little changed in reality, while some policies were taking hold and achieving real change. These reforms were stimulated by the rising energy prices, growing energy demands, propaganda of sustainable energy with environmental consciousness growing after Rio Summit, and for the Southeast Europe and Central Asia - the collapse of the Soviet Union with the consequent market liberalization which eliminated the energy market distortions and subsidies, creating real need for efficient use of energy resources.

The general accomplishment of the EE policy developments were:

• formalizing of the energy efficiency as a separate sphere of regulation;

• conceptualizing the state policy principles in the sphere of energy efficiency;

• prioritizing the sectors with higher EE potential, and defining EE incentives and sanctions for wasteful energy use;

• creating real financial and institutional structures for the promotion of energy efficiency, with allocated staff and budget;

• defining the development of short-term and long-term energy efficiency programs as a national priority;

• assigning responsibility for promotion of energy efficiency on national, regional and municipal levels.

In most instances, the Energy Efficiency Law is designed on the basis of an energy sector development strategy, which can be either an independent document, or the strategy principles may be defined in the Energy Law of the country. Such strategy document presents a government consensus on the importance of energy efficiency, and specific objectives to be accomplished with the implementation of EE measures. For some countries energy efficiency is a means for achieving energy security, reducing reliance on fuel imports, solving local and regional environmental problems, reducing the energy intensity of the economy, while achieving economic savings through application of energy efficient technologies.

The legal documents containing the state EE policy provisions vary from country to country. In some cases the overall Energy Law contains a section on Energy Efficiency, in others EE Law (may be called Energy Conservation Law, or Energy Saving Law or Energy Management Law) is a separate legal document, in others renewable energy promotion is included in the legal act promoting EE.

The Laws tend to be declarative if not followed with the establishment or empowerment of a designated institution or an agency responsible for:

• the enforcement of the state energy efficiency policy principles;

• development of short- and long-term EE programs and targets;

• coordination of EE efforts throughout the different sectors of the economy;

• development and enforcement of EE standards and indicators;

• certification of energy auditors and EE equipments and constructions; <t

• fee collection and fundraising aimed at generation ¡i of resources and funds required for providing EE fi- | nancial incentives; ®

• lobbying of energy efficiency reforms and raising « awareness on EE Issues, etc. j=

c

The following section presents the findings of some |2 research and analysis of the effectiveness of energy «= and energy efficiency laws from around the Southeast | Europe. ^

o o

The effectiveness of Energy and Energy Efficiency Laws in Central Europe

Alliance, in conjunction with several partner energy efficiency agencies and organizations including APER, ENEFFECT, SEVEn, FEWE and the Slovenian Energy Efficiency Agency conducted a survey sought to answer the following key questions:

• are there energy/energy efficiency laws separate or combined;

• what results have come form the laws (positive and negative);

• if little has happe ned, why and what would make the laws stronger;

• what is the impact of having a separate law (if any); and

• would they recommend a combined or separate law.

Table 1 presents a summary of the general answers

to each question.

The survey found that the structure of the energy efficiency legislation, part of or separate from the larger energy law, mattered little in the effectiveness of improving the energy efficiency situation in the country. Slovenia, with one combined law, attributes their success to the need to synchronize standards with the European Union and strong secondary legislation. The Czech Republic, according to SEVEn, with two laws,

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