научная статья по теме THE DEFINITION OF THE TERM OF INNOVATION Экономика и экономические науки

Текст научной статьи на тему «THE DEFINITION OF THE TERM OF INNOVATION»

The definition of the term of innovation

N.A. Shpak,

канд. экон. наук, проректор по инновационному развитию и международному сотрудничеству, Уральский государственный лесотехнический университет (620100, г. Екатеринбург, Сибирский тракт, 37; e-mail: shpak@usfeu. ru)

Аннотация. Проведен анализ современных определений инновации. Выявлены общие черты во взглядах разных авторов, в том числе и в законодательной сфере. Проанализированы недостатки современных определений и предложено авторское определение термина инновации.

Abstract. This paper discusses the problem of definition of innovations, analyzes the genesis of the innovation identification. The role of individual in the innovation process and the spheres of innovation influence. Finally as a result of the analysis the new definition of innovation is suggested by the author.

Ключевые слова: инновация, объект специализации инновации, территория распространения инновации, результат реализации инновации, генезис инновации.

Keywords: innovation, object specialization innovation, territory covered innovation, result of implementation of innovations, genesis of innovation.

History of Innovation Definition

The ability to generate new ideas represents competitive advantage in the conditions of the modern economy. This rule is also true for industrial sphere where the ability to be the first in creation has direct correlation with enterprise profit.

The last world crisis shows that in quickly changing and difficulty predicted environmental condition the most adaptive companies are the most successful. So only by creating essentially new ideas it is possible to become more competitive and strong. In the conditions of globalization and growth of competitive force, the model which basic element is self-development and innovation, defines the future. Such splash in interest to innovative activity draws the attention to the question of necessity of innovation definition.

The term of "innovation" has started to be used in the XIII century, designating «inventing something new, advanced in time» [1, p. 15]. It is the direct translation from Latin in - "in" and novus -"new" which is concrete enough, but leaves a field for various interpretations. Frequently the application of the term "innovation" is inseparably linked with such basic concepts of the modern innovative approach as "novation", "discovery" and "creation". Inherently the concept "innovation" is the economic event. The main problem of such definition was in the weak connection with the positive result or economical effect. It was simply new and didn't matter whether it is profitable or not. Also it wasn't stressed that the role of individual and his creative activity was the basis for innovation.

In science the term "innovation" starts to be applied in the end of the XIX century, and in each branch of science it had its own treatment.

In linguistics this term was defined as the change of grammatical forms at their transformation from one cultural area to another: «The natural mechanism of development structural cultures» [2, p.83].

In jurisprudence innovation was conceded as a replacement of the existing obligation to new one. The natural science used this term for designation of changes in development.

The main problem of this period was in the absence of the universal definition of innovation, there were a lot of them for each branch of science but not a general one.

Finally, in the beginning of the XX-th century research of a problem of innovation definition has found in works of G.Tard, J.Shumpeter and N.G.Kondratev. Nowadays many people think that only G.Tard was a founder of innovation theory in economics, but each of these persons influenced on the scientific contents of innovation. In their researches they came to conclusion that «the innovation is treated as a multifunctional concept» [3, p.3].

In G.Tard's works, including the work «The Social Logic», the indicators of public progress are inventions and innovations. And «... the invention is something essentially new» [4]. An innovation, «process of development of the invention as social-cultural norms, not limited to the adaptation of changing conditions» [4]. And G.Tard connects it not only with satisfaction of current requirements, but also with stimulation of occurrence of the new ones.

Экономика и предпринимательство, № 1, 2013 г.

n P E M n P M H M M A T E n b C T B O

The founder of the theory of innovations J. Shumpeter in his work «The Theory of Economic Development», conceded innovation as «means of business for receiving profit » [5] and recommended five basic types of innovations.

N. Kondratev has created «The Theory of Cyclic Development» [6], in which intensive use of innovations influenced on the economic and social development of the society.

During this period the science has claimed only that side of innovations scientific research which was connected with technological changes.

At the end of the XX-th century the innovative approach focused on a social aspect of the modern life of society. It is connected with the processes of globalization and as consequence of competition toughening when there is actual ability of the modern organization to survive and to develop itself in the conditions of quick social changes and globalization processes.

However, in a modern economic science there is a significant amount of supporters of the classical theory of J.Shumpeter, such as V. Loginov and A. Kulagin, who conceded innovation as «a subject, received during objectification or commercialization of the results of scientific and technical activity» [7, p.8].

Such modern writers as I. Bestuzheva-Lada, D. Vahitova, S. Glazeva, V. Dudchenko, V. Kondrateva, N. Lapina, V. Ljaudis, A. Prigozhina, B. Tviss gavevarious definitions of innovations, but they were unanimous defining the meaning of innovation, but they are miscellaneous defining the object of research as all their works are connected with studying of a socio-psychological component of social systems, character of social changes and types of innovative behavior.

In the research of Ershova I. and Ivanova T. innovation is the work, which «created with using of the newest scientific achievements and introduced on the market or in practical activities an innovation embodied in the new goods (works, services) or processes» [9, p.770-774].

The fact that, in the article of many author, concept of innovations is inseparably linked with creativity is extremely important, for example J. Karpova considers innovation to b «... The progressive result of creative activity which find wide application according to the author and leads to considerable changes in person ability to live in the society and nature» [8]. It is a question of the creative nature of innovation.

It is remarkable that the phenomenon of innovation is different from natural, spontaneously proceeding process, the innovation has such characteristics as «... Initiated and controllable changes, changes, occurring on the basis of the rational-strong-willed action» [10, p.81].

Journal of Economy and entrepreneurship, Vol. 7, Nom. 1

Summarizing all that was said before about the XX-th century we need to stress that the base for innovation is predictable operating creating process, organized for achieving planning objects with important social influence.

Current Definition of Innovation

Nowadays the problem of the correct definition of innovation is very actual. It proves to be true because it plays a priority role in the governmental policy. A lot of innovative events are supported and financed by the federal and regional budgets. But the situation is not ordinary because despite the fact that the existing federal legislation of innovation doesn't conclude the definition of it, many federal laws and program, stressed that only innovative projects have rights to be supported by the government [11].

The regional level of definition of innovation contains the number of laws, which were accepted by the regions of the Russian Federation: Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk areas, Republic Ingushetia, Krasnodar territory. Now more than 60 areas of the Russian Federation have its own special laws for regulating innovative policy and only some of them contain the point about economic efficiency of innovation. So, in the specified laws the innovation is defined as «the end result of innovative activity» [12], as «the result of the scientific, intellectual work which has received an embodiment in the form of a new or advanced product, the process possessing commercial potential» [13], as «the end result of innovative activity (the goods, technology, work, service), possessing novelty, utility and (or) the social importance, used in practical activities »[14], as« ... put into practice new or considerably improved product (the goods, service) or the process, a new method of sales or a new organizational method in business practice, the organization of workplaces or in external relations »[15].

The main disadvantage of this definitions is the fact that it doesn't touch the results of innovative activity and doesn't outline the idea that innovation must have economical effect or it must generate profit.

Also it is an important fact that innovation is the result of creative or research activity of the person or the group of people.

Thus, it is possible to point out a number of distinctive features in modern definition of the term of innovation:

1. Result of innovation realization is the occurrence of the new quality, which is not inherent earlier in the object of innovative specialization. Innovation realization is possible by:

-carrying over already known quality into new social-cultural conditions which is connected with processes of globalization of the world economy,

-developing of the earlier not realized possibility of the innovative object into the current market segment,

- improving the existing characteristics of the prod

Для дальнейшего прочтения статьи необходимо приобрести полный текст. Статьи высылаются в формате PDF на указанную при оплате почту. Время доставки составляет менее 10 минут. Стоимость одной статьи — 150 рублей.

Показать целиком

Пoхожие научные работыпо теме «Экономика и экономические науки»