DOI: 10.12731/wsd-2014-9.1-7 UDC 338.2:330.131
the value and usefulness in the assessment of economic safety and competitiveness
The article discusses the application of economic theory of value to categories such as economic security, competitiveness, economic policy. The article discusses the scientific research base in relation to the usefulness of these categories.
The economic science and practice develop as though separately from each other. At first it doesn't allow to achieve the goals the most effective ways, secondly the ways are put forward as effective, not always are those, are insufficiently proved and approved in practice. It forms negative attitude of experts to a science. Ruptures between the theory and practice of application of scientific workings out in economy are formed.
Aim: consideration of interrelation of categories economic safety, competitiveness, economic policy and values and usefulness.
object of research: categories economic safety and competitiveness, value, utility.
Result: a substantiation of necessity of continuation of studying of questions of formation of tools of an estimation of economic safety and competitiveness within the development offered by school «Economic theory of value», including for economic policy formation.
Keywords: economic safety, development, branch structure, the forecast, value, usefulness, competitiveness, economic policy.
ценность и полезность в оценке экономической безопасности и конкурентоспособности
В статье рассмотрены вопросы применения экономической теории ценности к таким категориям как экономическая безопасность, конкурентоспособность, экономическая политика. В статье рассмотрено научное основание исследования полезности применительно к этим категориям.
Экономическая наука и практика развиваются как бы отдельно друг от друга. Это, во-первых не позволяет достигать целей наиболее эффективными способами, во-вторых способы, выдвигающиеся как эффективные, не всегда являются таковыми, недостаточно обоснованы и апробированы на практике. Это формирует негативное отношение практиков к науке. Формируются разрывы между теорией и практикой применения научных разработок в экономике.
Цель: рассмотрение взаимосвязи категорий экономическая безопасность, конкурентоспособность, экономическая политика и ценности и полезность.
предмет исследования: категории экономическая безопасность и конкурентоспособность, ценность, полезность.
результат: обоснование необходимости продолжения изучения вопросов формирования инструментов оценки экономической безопасности и конкурентоспособности в рамках разработок предложенных школой «Экономическая теория ценности», в том числе для целей формирования экономической политики.
Ключевые слова: экономическая безопасность, развитие, отраслевая структура, прогноз, ценность, полезность, конкурентоспособность, экономическая политика.
Economic safety of the enterprises - most an effective utilization of resources, scientific and technical, technological, industrial and personnel potential of the enterprise for prevention of external and internal threats, maintenance of stable functioning and ability of the enterprise to reproduction in the future . Such idea about economic safety can be fair and concerning territories, regions. Economic safety is the category connected not only with definition of calls and threats and creation of system of reaction to them. The concept economic safety is closely connected with concept competitiveness, as a category influencing a sustainable development of subjects of economic activities.
Competition is a market mechanism realised in the form of interaction of market subjects and struggle between them for the most favourable conditions of the appendix of the capital. The competition in the conditions of the market promotes formation of economic relations and is way of the economy improvement .
Now questions of increase of competitiveness are very actualfor the Russian economy, especially in the conditions of the introduction of Russia into the World Trade Organization/ These questions are as actual and for the Tatarstan economy. The industry share makes 44,5%, buildings - 10,1 %, transport and communication - 8,4 %, agriculture -7,1 % in structure of a total regional product of Tatarstan.
Industrial profile of republic define a petrochemical complex (oil recovery, manufacture of synthetic rubber, tyres, polyethylene and a wide spectrum of products of oil refining), the large machine-building enterprises making competitive production (heavy trucks, helicopters, planes and aircraft engines, compressors and the oil and gas pumping over equipment, river and sea-crafts, scale commercial and cars), and also developed electro- and radio instrument making . In processing productions the index of industrial production made 112,8% to level of 2011, in mining operations - 100,7 %, in manufacture of the electric power, gas and water - 100,8 % .
The economy of Tatarstan is industrially focused at the moment and if we don't pay due attention to questions of competitiveness and it's increase, then positive dynamics of industrial production indexes can be replaced with the negative.
Factors which define necessity of strengthening of economic safety and also competitiveness increases are:
- strengthening of pressure of a competition after Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization, both at the expense of the improved quality of production of competitors, and at the expense of reduction of trading barriers,
- strengthening of insistence of consumers, both to quality, and to the price for production,
- strengthening of a role of scientific and technical progress in manufacture,
- strengthening of requirements to manufacturers from the state, introduction of regulations, standards, strengthening of requirements to ecological compatibility.
If problems of strengthening of economic safety and competitiveness increase were easy for solving, indisputable, it is would be made, but this process is connected with a number of problems which will be necessary for solving. Now the tool which will allow to estimate, predict, model a condition of economic safety is necessary. The similar tool is necessary not only for increase of knowledge of an economic safetycondition. It is necessary, as the tool of formation of industrial economic policy, to strengthen economic safety of territories, regions.
The economic science and practice develop as though separately from each other, these are realities of our time. It does not allow to reach the purposes in the most effective ways, or the ways which are put forward as effective, are not those, are insufficiently proved and approved in practice. Thus negative attitude is formedfrom experts-practitionersto a science. Ruptures between the theory and practice of scientific research out are formedin economy.
Concepts of the economic theory, such as value of the blessings, usefulness, cost are more often considered in a separation from real economy. Work of«Economic theory of value» school is directed on is directed on orientation reduction only on the theory, a substantiation and studying and application of these categories in practice, in various spheres of managing.
Studying of categories of usefulness and value in relation to such spheres as economic safety, competitiveness can be important.
«... Value represents synthesis of results and expenses where the first should be defined as unity of concrete and abstract utility, and the second as unity of concrete and abstract work. Thus concept «concrete usefulness»has the same sense, as«use cost». «Use cost» - utility of a thing, its ability to satisfy any human requirement .
The competition promotes formation of economic relations and is way to economic recoveryin the conditions of the market . Within the limits of development of ideas of the socially-focused business, corporate social responsibility definition of value, usefulness, can be very important.
The modern methods of assessing competitiveness main efforts is on the assessment of the processes of economic, technological, social parties and practically excludes the concept of usefulness, value, even in the classic sense. There is an explanation to it: competitiveness is evaluated in order to create a strategy or plan of action to improve the financial results in the long term.
An efficiency of the blessing is defined as a parity of quality of the blessing to costs on its manufacture (accordingto school substantive provisions of «The Economic theory of value»).
Competitiveness of industrial products is usually considered in the system: price, quality, after-sales service. Competitiveness of production is a component of competitiveness of the organisation. The categories defined by «The economic theory of value»schoolare fit perfectly into the evaluation mechanismof the organisations and a product made by this organisation.
Competitiveness of production (or one of factors ofcompetitive-ness evaluation) for the consumer with use of an indicator of value can look as a parity:
T, . r , , usefulness of the product in
Value of the product =- (1)
cost of the product
As «usefulness» it is possible to consider set of quality parameters of production and «benefit» from its acquisition, as «cost» it is possible to consider expenses for product acquisition, in interrelation with expenses for use, operation of this production.
From the point of view of the manufacturer at calculation of an indicator of value of production as utility benefit from production, as cost of an expense for its manufacture can be considered.
Competitiveness of the enterprise can be considered within the limits of concept «valueas the ratio of usefulnessand cost parity» too, considering the factor of value of production.
Thus applying concept value, evaluating the usefulness of the made blessing for consumers, the organisation
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