DOI: 10.12731/wsd-2014-9.1-3 UDC 314.93
USING THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH IN FORMING
STRATEGY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TERRITORIES OF A REGION
Stovba E.V., Masalimov R.N.
In the article the necessity of the behavioral approach in the elaboration of strategy of sustainable development of rural territories of Republic of Bashkortostan is grounding. An analysis of social and economical development of a rural region in 20082012 is presented. The negative dynamics of economical indices of the majority of rural territories of Republic causes the considerable deterioration of social components. Using the behavioral approach in study of agrarian sphere permits to provide the importance of behavioral factors in the sustainable development of rural territories. Rural youth is a reproductive foundation and strategic reserves of the sustainable development of agrarian areas. The role of social factors in the achievement of effectiveness of agricultural production is considered. Increasing the economical efficiency of the agricultural production is examining as a principal factor of positive development of the social sphere and the infrastructure of rural territories.
Keywords: the agrarian sphere; strategy of sustainable development; the rural territories; behavioral economics; postmodernism; rural youth.
ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ БИХЕВИОРАЛЬНОГО ПОДХОДА ПРИ ФОРМИРОВАНИИ СТРАТЕГИИ УСТОЙЧИВОГО РАЗВИТИЯ СЕЛЬСКИХ ТЕРРИТОРИЙ РЕГИОНА
Стовба Е.В., Масалимов Р.Н.
В статье обосновывается необходимость использования бихевиорального подхода при разработке стратегии устойчивого развития сельских территорий на примере Республики Башкортостан. Дан краткий анализ социально-экономического развития сельской местности региона за период с 2008 по 2012 годы. Отрицательная динамика экономических показателей функционирования большинства сельских территорий республики обусловила существенное ухудшение социальной составляющей сельской местности. Показано, что применение бихевиорального подхода к изучению функционирования аграрной сферы позволяет выделить существенную роль поведенческих факторов в устойчивом развитии сельских территорий. Сельская молодежь является воспроизводственной основой и стратегическим резервом устойчивого развития сельских территорий. Исследуется роль социальных факторов в обеспечении экономической эффективности аграрного производства. Показано, что повышение экономической эффективности сельскохозяйственного производства агроорганизаций является ключевым фактором, выражающим позитивное развитие социальной сферы и инфраструктуры сельских территорий.
Ключевые слова: аграрная сфера; стратегия устойчивого развития; сельские территории; бихевиоральная экономика; постмодернизм; сельская молодёжь.
The problems of elaboration of the strategy of sustainable development of the agrarian sphere are now urgent problems in economical studies. At the worldwide level the strategy of transition to sustainable development of the agrarian sphere was declared at the UN Conference on environment and development in Rio de Janeiro (1992). Comprehension of the problems was reflected in a number of international acts, including resolutions of the session of FAO (Rome, 1996), some proceedings of the World Bank (January, 2000), documents of World Summit on sustainable development (RSA, 2002), European Presidents' Conference on innovations and clusters (Stockholm, 2006), UN Conference (Rio de Janeiro, 2012).
According to report of the UN International Commission on the environment and development (G.H. Brundtland), «our common future», «sustainable and permanent development is not an invariable status of harmony, but rather a process of changes in that volumes of exploitation of resources, trends of capital investments, orientations of technical development will be coordinated by the present and future needs and requirements» [7, p. 8].
By Russian terminology rural territories are determined as «territories of rural settlements (may be one or several, with common local self-ruling, realizing directly, as well by elective bodies) and other inter-settlement territories (territories lying outside borders of settle-ments)» . According to definition of European Council and OESD rural territories are «inner and littoral areas including small towns and
villages serve as an agricultural and forest preserves or settling territories with aquaculture and fishing, opportunities for economical and social activities, relaxation and leisure» . Proceeding from criteria of these international organizations, rural areas (or rural territories) are the overwhelming majority of municipal districts of Russian Federation.
The sustainable development of rural territories needs in the elaboration of a strategy ensuring the solution of problems emerging directly in municipal level. The orientation to a model of sustainable development must be aimed at the optimal combination of economical and social factors determining directly the effective functioning of rural territories [12,13].
The scientific elaborations dedicated to forming the strategies of the rural areas development on the regional level are not presented widely enough by the native researchers; they could facilitate to plan a balanced functioning of the productive and social spheres and to determine the possible conditions of stable growth of the agriculture. Adopted by the Government of Russian Federation Conception of special aim program «The Sustainable Development of Rural Territories of Russian Federation in 2014-2017 and till 2020» makes for an elaboration of new methodical approaches and propositions directed to planning the functioning of agrarian organizations on the immediately municipal level. The disproportions of development of rural municipal territories in pre-reform period were successfully smoothed over by directive methods, but under the conditions of modern agriculture production on the regional level it is necessary to use a differentiation approach permitting to take into account the individual particularities of functioning of rural territories and settlements.
The imperfection of native methodology of the strategic planning and forecasting of the development of rural territories on the sub-regional (municipal) level, the absence of system approach to study the priority development of rural territories summons the necessity of the permanent improving of methodic approaches to investigation this important problem. Nobel prize laureate on economics Gunnar Myrdal truly emphasized: «the result of the struggle for sustainable lasting development will be obtained just in the agrarian sphere» .
In our opinion using behavioral approach as a modern instrument of scientific investigations could permit to effectively plan the strategy of sustainable development of agrarian sphere on different hierarchical level of management, including on the level of rural territories.
The conception of «Behavioral Economics» - «Economics from the point of view of behavior of the producers and consumers» - is now the most perspective direction of economical theory. Scientific publications dedicated to investigation the different behaviorist factors of sustainable development of country-side have been appeared abroad recently. In our country, meanwhile, the problems of behavioral economics concerning the agrarian sphere were until not considered. All the more, it concerns the behavioral factors of agricultural economy and rural territories.
The behavioral economics at the methodological aspect considers the social and psychological particularity of human perception, mind and behavioral activity. Registration of these factors allows to improve really understanding ability of economical science, and to make the model constructions adequate to real economic situations.
It is necessary to emphasize in post-modernistic epoch a man really becomes in focus of the reproduction process. Present thesis has
been most brightly reflected in enormous growth of popularity of a research theme «A Man and His Labor Activities». In particular, in 90-s of the XX century have been appeared theories on endogenic economical growth within there a key factor would be the human capital [16, 18, 21]. At the beginning of the XXI century psychological theories of labor and capital started to develop, and a new scientific trend of «behavioral economics» was widely spread [4.9]. The essence of these theories is a man and his labor as a source of new ideas and innovations as well as key components of a stable development of the economic sphere.
An agrarian worker, actually, involved in extreme labor at set seasons can't help acting rationally. Nevertheless, our research proves that he has to rely on his intuition, biological instincts and also turns to his ancestors' experience which is, in fact, traditions and national culture.
Undoubtedly, there is also a skeptical approach to the post-modernism phenomenon in the non-material spheres of the society. By way of the illustration of the above mentioned criticism we can quote the famous post-modern author Victor Pelevin: «Post-modernism is making a doll's doll being a doll yourself» .
Meanwhile it ought to be stated that nowadays certain researchers still prefer to use the categories of materiality of economics unlike the representatives of «behavioralism» and «mentalism». In this case we can give an example of the economical behavior which is always determined by material things, artifacts that is property relations on the land market and other «market facilities».
In a number of publications it is emphasized that most of the elaborated econometrical models actually fail to calculate the significant
correlation of economical growth and human capital both in the time and in the inter-state spheres. Thus, it is stated that the considerable growth of the educational potential level of the population of the developing countries from 1960 to 1985 hasn't, practically, aff
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