Архив научных статейиз журнала «Геоморфология»
НЕКОТОРЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ ГЕОМОРФОЛОГИЧЕСКОЙ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИИ
ГАВРИЛОВ А.А. — 2015 г.
The author suggests to consider as the object of general geomorphology not the relief of the Earth, but the total sphere of morphogenesis. It includes the landscape geosphere and the lithosphere. Its upper boundary coincides with the maximum height of the dust transport in the atmosphere - the troposphere-stratosphere boundary, the lower boundary coincides with the lithosphere bottom. As an elementary geomorphic system the author considers the smallest mineral particles moving by endogenous or exogenous forces during formation and evolution of landforms. The main purpose of morphostructural analysis is to distinguish the dislocations which play the main role in the formation of the endogenic basis of the given area relief. Morphostructures are the objects of morphostructural analysis. The aim of morphotectonics - morphological and geodynamic typing of the structural plan elements with the use of geomorphic data. Geologic structure and conformal relief represent the object of morphotectonics.
О ТРАНСГРЕССИВНОМ И РЕГРЕССИВНОМ СМЕЩЕНИИ ОСТРОВОВ И ОСТРОВНЫХ МАССИВОВ В РАЗВЕТВЛЕННЫХ ШИРОКОПОЙМЕННЫХ РУСЛАХ
КИРИК О.М., ЧАЛОВ Р.С. — 2015 г.
The mechanism of the islands and island clusters movements is suggested. The velocity field and circulating flows usually lead to washing of their upper part and to formation of spits in their tails which result in the island's displacement. If the sediment run-off exceeds carrying capacity of the river, then backwater due to the island existence causes accumulation at the upper part of the island and its regressive displacement. Symmetrically braided river bed expresses directional development of the bed deformation (the sediment accumulation and the bottom level rising). Regressive displacement often is manifested in the formation of midstream sandbank upstream the island due to water surface inclination. The backwater appears at some distance from the head of the island and the flow is directed to the one or another braid during different phases of a regime. These flow are carrying sediments out from under the ridge, determine the midstream sandbank stabilization, and prevent its coming onto the island. Localities of the island's regressive movement were determined: in the periphery of the bed, in the zones of backwater upstream the confluence, before the valley bottom narrowing, downstream the local sources of sediments influx. Conditions of island stabilization depend on the meanders formation in the braids circumflexing the island, geomorphologic limitations (transition from the wide flood-plain to incised river-bed, constraints by bedrock coast promontories), transition from the braided bed to the wandering or relatively rectilinear not braided one. The meander bars and midstream sandbanks consecutive coming on to the point of braiding from the upstream reach is also significant.
ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПРОЦЕССОВ ВЫСВОБОЖДЕНИЯ ЗОЛОТА НА СКЛОНАХ РАЗНЫХ ЭКСПОЗИЦИЙ КАК КРИТЕРИЙ ПРОГНОЗА ЛОКАЛИЗАЦИИ КРУПНЫХ РОССЫПЕЙ (НА ПРИМЕРЕ ВЕРХНЕКАРАЛОНСКОГО МЕСТОРОЖДЕНИЯ В ЗАБАЙКАЛЬЕ)
ЯЦЕНКО А.С., ЯЦЕНКО Р.И. — 2015 г.
The gold release from the ores and wallrocks into the fine earth in mountain deeply dissected area of Transbaikalia occurs more intensively on the southern slopes than on the northern ones. Respectively, interkurum lithochemical gold anomalies are formed much more often on the southern slopes. If they have significant area the factor of slope exposure may be used to primary evaluation of the object as one having large bulk with relatively low contents of gold, but large total ore volume.
ПЕДИМЕНТЫ В ЦЕНТРЕ РУССКОЙ РАВНИНЫ: КОММЕНТАРИЙ К СТАТЬЕ В.А. КРИВЦОВА И С.А. ПРАВКИНА “ДОЛИННЫЕ ПЕДИМЕНТЫ В СРЕДНЕМ ТЕЧЕНИИ Р. ОКИ”
ПАНИН А.В. — 2015 г.
Publication activity analysis reveals that the term “pediment” has remained popular in geomorphological literature over the past decades. However in the East-European Plain, pediments have still been studied only in its eastern part; for the central part of the Plain this is the first journal publication, that determines its relevance. The mass-wasting pedestals of the Oka river valley slopes, which were described by the authors, are rather elements of local mass-wasting systems - transitional elements of slump slopes, than classical pediments that make a part of landscape planation system. However they do fit the formal definition of a pediment. Data by V.A. Krivtsov and S.A. Pravkin show the close dependence of valley pediment formation in this case on lateral erosion of the river banks: undercutting of a rather long section of the valley side triggers slump activity and subsequent pediment formation. Deciphering the river lateral migrations at a given valley stretch could help to estimate the pediments’ ages. In particular, one of the pediments in the vicinity of the Ryazan’ city is based upon a downstream part of a small Holocene palaeomeander. Small palaeochannels in the river valleys of the region are known to have been formed in the Mid-Holocene. This fact suggests that the palaeochannel was abandoned and the related pediments was formed between 7-8 and 2.5 ka BP. A more accurate estimation of this and other pediment age requires absolute geochronology data from palaeofluvial features in the Oka valley.
ПОТОКИ НАНОСОВ ВДОЛЬ ЮГО-ВОСТОЧНОГО ПОБЕРЕЖЬЯ БАЛТИКИ
ЛЕОНТЬЕВ И.О. — 2015 г.
The study is aimed at determination of magnitudes and directions of sediment fluxes along the coasts of Sambian Peninsula and Curonian Spit by using the calculations of wave-induced sediment transport in a coastal zone. On the base of available data on nearshore bathymetry and wave regime the distributions of both the total fluxes for main wave directions and net sediment flux are computed. It is shown that sediment transport along the studied coasts break up into a number of cells with alternating zones of divergence and convergence. Unidirectional sediment flux is traced only in the northern section of Curonian Spit (up to 260x10 3 m 3/year). Predicted location of the erosion and accretion zones associated with changes in the net sediment flux is confirmed by the published observed data.
РАЗВИТИЕ ЭРОЗИОННО-АККУМУЛЯТИВНЫХ ПРОЦЕССОВ В МАЛЫХ ВОДОСБОРНЫХ БАССЕЙНАХ ЗАПАДНОГО ЗАБАЙКАЛЬЯ В ПОЗДНЕЛЕДНИКОВЬЕ И ГОЛОЦЕНЕ
АРСЛАНОВ Х.А., ГОЛУБЦОВ В.А., КОБЫЛКИН Д.В., МАКСИМОВ Ф.Е., РЫЖОВ Ю.В., РЯЩЕНКО Т.Г. — 2015 г.
Detailed investigations of soil-sediment sequences of three sections (Nizhnyaya Bulanka, Nadeino and Kuytun) in the Kuytunka river basin (Western Transbaikalia) was carried out. Three stages of activation of erosion- accumulation processes in small drainage basins of Western Transbaikalia are determined: Pre Holocene (13.010.7), Early- (10.3-8.0) and Late Holocene (last 2.5 I4C kyr). During these stages several phases of sedimentation and soil-forming process are distinguished. High intensity of aeolian processes together with washout and sedimentation during time spans of 10.7-10.0 and 9.5-9.0 kyr were determined on erosion landforms and alluvial fans. The main causes of deposition processes intensification have been revealed and quantitative data about their intensity were obtained. Intensification of soil-forming process in conditions of mountain-forest-steppe landscapes of Western Transbaikalia begins when sedimentation rates reach 0.06-0.37 mm/yr. Within the sedimentation rate interval 0.3-0.6 mm/yr humus interlayers alternate with layers of colluvial and aeolian deposits. At the rate above 0.6 mm/yr sedimentation of sandy loam and sands with inclusions of rubble are observed. Duration of soil development is 300-3500 years. Sediment accumulation phases have duration from 70 to 2000 years. Development of erosion-accumulation processes are characterized by polychronicity related to different response of small drainages basins to global, regional and local environmental changes. Rhythmical development of the washout, erosion, accumulation and soil-forming processes provides long-term activity of erosional landforms.
РЕКИ ГОРНЫХ ТЕРРИТОРИЙ СЕВЕРО-ВОСТОКА РОССИИ: ОДНОРОДНОСТЬ И РАЗНООБРАЗИЕ МОРФОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИК ИХ РУСЕЛ
МИХАЙЛОВ В.М. — 2015 г.
Analysis of QI-diagrams and earlier obtained results demonstrate that in the whole range of drainage areas (15-100 000 km 2), the braided rivers of the territory constitute a statistically homogeneous, in relation to IQ b values, population. This index lies within the interval of 0.025-0.077. Inside this population, braided rivers aggrading alluvium often have more steep valley gradient than rivers eroding bedrocks, though they have the same maximal runoff. In the upper reaches of drainage network meandering rivulets are numerous. Their valleys have lower gradients than braided ones, all other conditions being equal, by a factor of 1.5-3.2. Presumably, they are products of braided streams degradation.
РЕЛИКТОВАЯ ДОЛИНА (СПИЛЛВЕЙ) НА ВОДОРАЗДЕЛЕ ВИТИМА И НЕРЧИ (ВОСТОЧНОЕ ЗАБАЙКАЛЬЕ)
ЕНИКЕЕВ Ф.И. — 2015 г.
The existence of the relict spillway connecting Age Vitim basin with the Nercha river valley in the Pleistocene Ice is reasoned. The spillway was formed by the runoff from the ice-dam lake in the Vitim River valley over the continental divide. Ice-dam reservoirs were formed in the Taz, Muruktinsk, and Sartan glacial epochs with the levels of 900, 880, and 860 m respectively. Formation of the terraces of the Vitim with the relative heights up to 50 m, 10-12 m, and 6-7 m took place in the Shirtinskoye, Kazantsevskoye, and Karghinskoye interglacials respectively. Runoff from dam lake into the Nercha valley increased its catchment area from 27 600 km 2 to 201 600 km 2. Multiple increase of the runoff resulted in the development of new longitudinal profiles of the river valley and in the formation of the erosion terraces during each glaciation. Sedimentation analysis, chronological, and palynological methods were used. doi: 10.15356/0435-4281-2015-2-71-77
РЕЛЬЕФ ЗЕМЛИ - ПУТИ ПОЗНАНИЯ (К 30-ЛЕТИЮ ВЫХОДА В СВЕТ КНИГИ М.В. ПИОТРОВСКОГО “К ПОЗНАНИЮ ЗАКОНОВ ЗЕМЛИ”)
ГАВРИЛОВ А.А. — 2015 г.
РЕЧНЫЕ БАССЕЙНЫ КАК ОБЪЕКТЫ ЭКОЛОГО-ГЕОМОРФОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЙ
БОРСУК О.А., СИМОНОВА Т.Ю., ШМЫКОВ В.И. — 2015 г.
СТРОЕНИЕ РЕЧНЫХ ТЕРРАС МАЛОГО КАВКАЗА
САЯДЯН Ю.В. — 2015 г.
A new correlation scheme was drawn up for the river systems of the Araks and Kura. 14 terrace levels in the basin of the river Araks and 13 levels in the basin of the river Kura were newly distinguished. They are aged from the Late Akchagyl up to and including Novocaspian. These levels have different relative heights, which are subdivided into four groups: low, medium, high and highest. The sequence of river terraces is most fully expressed in the intermountain valleys and foothills. In these areas, terraces have been correlated with each other are traced into the mountain zone, where they move in glaciofluvial sediments and moraines. Furthermore terraces have been traced into the Kura depression and associated with the marine sediments of the Caspian sea to determine their relative age. The specific structure is characteristic to terraces of the rivers on the volcanic uplands, where the outpouring of lavas has had a great influence on their formation. Lava repeatedly during the Pliocene and Pleistocene filled valley that led to the burial of terraces, damming valleys and the formation of lakes, especially large ones in intermontane depressions.
ТЕРРАСЫ ГОРНЫХ РЕЧНЫХ ДОЛИН - ГЕНЕТИЧЕСКИЙ ПОДХОД (НА ПРИМЕРЕ ГОР СЕВЕРО-ВОСТОКА АЗИИ)
ГОЛЬДФАРБ Ю.И. — 2015 г.
Terraces of the mountain rivers are an important source of mineral products and paleogeographic information. To reveal the terraces and give their precise description the genetic approach is suggested. According to such an approach the cycle terraces are the remnants of equilibrious bottom of the river valley. Knowing the regularities of the bottom structure helps to distinguish their important morphologic elements spreading to terraces - the surface of the former high floodplain and over-talweg step or the bed. They both represent intermediate and ending equilibrious profiles of the corresponding erosion cycle and have horizontal cross-sections. Usually they are buried under deposits on the terraces but their connections with certain lithofacies allow to determine their position in the geologic sections. Realization of the genetic approach is expensive but it should paid off due to resulting possibility of the higher accuracy of the river valley development reconstruction. doi: 10.15356/0435-4281-2015-2-3-15
ТИПЫ БЕРЕГОВЫХ МОРФОСИСТЕМ КРЫМА
ИГНАТОВ Е.И., САНИН А.Ю. — 2015 г.
The Crimean coasts are considered as the complex of coastal morphosystems. Their marine and overland borders have been determined. Overland borders are watersheds of rivers (1-4 orders), marine borders are in the most cases 30 meters isobaths. The specialties of structure and functioning of the coastal systems have been detected as well as their regional differences. For instance, the area of the Western Crimean coastal systems is much larger than the South Coast’s ones. As a rule, the Crimean coastal morphosystems include the water area and 10-15 river basins of various orders. The key factor in the systems functioning is a sediment balance. The typification of the systems according to the coast configuration and the degree of human influence has been made. The main types of human impact on coastal systems have been determined: the bank stabilization, the channels and water reservoirs building, and agriculture.
ТРУДЫ ТАЛАНТЛИВОГО ОТЕЧЕСТВЕННОГО ГЕОМОРФОЛОГА ИВАНА НИКОЛАЕВИЧА ГЛАДЦИНА (1884-1942)
ЧИЧАГОВ В.П. — 2015 г.
I.N. Gladtsyn was talented representative of the first generation of Russian geomorphologists, first-rate organizer, the teacher of such outstanding scientists as I.P. Gerasimov, K.K. Markov, S.S. Schults. He performed field researches in the Transbaikalia, the Kolsky Peninsular, the Crimea; in his writings regional investigations were predominant. His main topics were rock glaciers, stone polygons, origin and dynamics of the salt Transbaikalian lakes, origin and structure of the Crimean red-beds. I.N. Gladtsyn is the author of the first in this country text-book “Relief of the USSR” (1939).
ШОКОЛАДНЫЕ ГЛИНЫ СЕВЕРНОГО ПРИКАСПИЯ (РАСПРОСТРАНЕНИЕ, УСЛОВИЯ ЗАЛЕГАНИЯ И СТРОЕНИЕ)
МАКШАЕВ Р.Р., СВИТОЧ А.А. — 2015 г.
“Chocolate” clay is one of the most common facies of Lower Khvalynian sediments of Northern Caspian and Lower - Middle Volga region. After more than a hundred years of research, there are still many unresolved issues related to the conditions of its bedding, structure, facial composition and coloration. “Chocolate” clay is confined solely to pre-Khvalynian relief depressions: terraces, paleo-incisions and tributary junctions, different paleo-ravines, estuaries, saline-dome depressions (Elton, Baskunchak), and ancient aeolean depressions at watersheds (Kalmykia). The roof of chocolate clay gradually decreases from the north to the south according to the general slope of the surface of the Lower Volga and Northern Caspian regions. The highest level of clays occurrence in the Caspian depression usually amounts to 20-25 m a.s.l. To the north, within the valley of the Volga, this level rises to 35 m and higher. There are two types of chocolate clay distribution: continuous and spotted (mosaic) one. Continuous distribution prevails in the Volga River valley and is observed in ancient estuaries and major tributaries junctions: the Large and Little Irgiz, Large and Little Karaman, Torgun etc. Spotted distribution is typical for Kalmykia and the Volga delta. Analysis of the “Chocolate” clays reference sections showed that several subfacies of clays may be distinguished: monoargillaceous, stratified, sand-clay and silt-clay. The most common monoargillaceous subfacies has entirely clay composition. It’s massive unstratified or hidden-stratified dark chocolate-brown clay with a large block jointing, sometimes interbedded with lighter silt varieties.
ЭКЗОГЕННЫЕ РЕЛЬЕФООБРАЗУЮЩИЕ ПРОЦЕССЫ: РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЙ В РОССИИ И СТРАНАХ СНГ (XXXIV ПЛЕНУМ ГЕОМОРФОЛОГИЧЕСКОЙ КОМИССИИ РАН)
БРЫЛЕВ В.А., БУЛАНОВ С.А., ГОЛИКОВА Ю.А., КЛАДОВЩИКОВА М.Е., ЛИХАЧЕВА Э.А., ПРЯХИН С.И., ЧИЧАГОВ В.П. — 2015 г.
ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯ ТРАНСФОРМАЦИИ РЕЛЬЕФА В АСТРАХАНСКОМ РЕГИОНЕ
БОГДАНОВ Н.А., ЧУЙКОВ Ю.С. — 2015 г.
Urbanization, industrial, agricultural and recreational land development actively transform landscapes in the Astrakhan region. First of all, the processes of land development affect the relief of the area, and properties of rocks and unconsolidated sediments (physical-mechanical, chemical, toxicological, microbiological, radiological etc.). Environmentally hazardous changes in geomorphological conditions in the region are associated with deflation, suffosion, landslides, wave erosion and water erosion, pollution of soil, pasture and recreational digression of the landscape. Changes of geomorphological conditions take place due to natural, anthropogenic, mixed effects, including techno- and biogenic processes. Special concern is paid to transformation caused by the influence of wind and water flows, as well as the “new factor” - organized but mostly disordered activity of different kinds of tourists. Thus, erosion threatening area reaches 2031 10 3 hectares, and deflation affects 29% of these areas. The annual number of tourists reaches 1.8 million people, most of which are spontaneous tourists. At one of the test sites on the beach of Volga-Akhtuba floodplain annual weight of waste from such activity amounted to 94 kg/hectare, and the amount of the people on the beach reaches up to 50 per 10 m along the shore. Damage can be reduced by a scientifically grounded environmental management.
ЭКОЛОГО-ГЕОМОРФОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ СИСТЕМЫ СЕВЕРО-ВОСТОЧНОГО КАВКАЗА И ИХ ТИПОЛОГИЯ
ЗАБУРАЕВА Х.Ш., КРАСНОВ Е.В. — 2015 г.
The typification of the North-Eastern Caucasus geomorphologic systems was made by calculation of the coefficients of their ecologic-economic absolute and relative tension. Four types of the systems were distinguished: lowland, piedmont, middle-mountain, and high mountain ones, which are characterized by regional features of geoecologic situation. The most tense geoecologic situations and the least stability to outer factors’ impact are characteristic to the acquired and industrialized territories in the piedmont and low-mountain parts of the Great Caucasus, occupying more than half of its territory. Landslides and mudflows are the main hazardous processes here which endanger 96 habitats. Two original maps showing indexes of geological stability and tension of ecologic-economic conditions of the geosystems were compiled and represented in the paper.
ЭКОЛОГО-ГЕОМОРФОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ АНАЛИЗ ТЕРРИТОРИИ УДМУРТИИ
КИРИЛЛОВА А.В. — 2015 г.
63% of the territory of the Republic of Udmurtia are the regions with favorable and relatively favorable ecologic-geomorphologic conditions, 37% correspond to the regions with unfavorable ecologic-geomorphologic conditions. The settlements are confined mainly to the basins of lower order, since the higher order watercourses are low-water and are often located in wetlands. In settlements located on river floodplains and terraces, as well as in closed depressions self-purification of the air is slow, and an unfavorable ecological situation has arisen there. Continuously inhabited areas are often located on gentle slopes of warm exposures, 100-200 m a.s.l., which are composed of loam, sand and loamy sand in the southern part of Udmurtia (Mozhga and Sarapul uplands). The watersheds are the borders between not only natural systems (river basins), but also between social systems - regions with different density of rural population.
ЭОЛОВО-АККУМУЛЯТИВНЫЙ КОМПЛЕКС “САРЫКУМ” - УНИКАЛЬНЫЙ ГЕОМОРФОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ ОБЪЕКТ РОССИИ: ИСТОРИЯ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ, ГИПОТЕЗЫ ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЯ
ГУСАРОВ А.В. — 2015 г.
The aeolian-accumulative complex Sarykum is the biggest in Russia and one of the highest isolated sandy landforms in Eurasia with total area over 2500 ha. It is the whole system of sandy knolls and dunes, ridge sands located in the NE Caucasus foothill within the Terek-Sulak plain, 16-17 km towards NW of the Makhachkala City seaport (Republic of Daghestan, Russia). The origination and age of the sands, of which Sarykum massif has been formed, are still a big mystery. The existing hypotheses of the Sarykum sands genesis from those that considered the Sarykum as a relic phenomenon of the vast Central Asia deserts, widely stretched along the Caspian lowland, to aeolian versions explaining the origin by wind transportation from the Central Asia’s sandy deserts (namely the Karakums) across the Caspian Sea, or by weathering of indigenous sandstones composing the Foothill Daghestan and/or the loose pebble-clay- sandy deposits of high marine terraces of the Caspian Sea) are described and critically evaluated in the paper. Also the critical assessment to coastal-marine and relatively exotic volcanogenic versions is made. However, despite the different scientific validity of most of these hypotheses, none of them cannot convincingly answer the simple question: why did it happen here on the banks of the Shura-Ozen’ River, at the site of the river’s exit from the Foothill Daghestan to the Caspian lowland? The author puts forward its own version of the sands genesis: originally, prior to their partial aeolian transformation, the Sarykum sands were the deltaic deposits of the Shura-Ozen’ River. The denudation area which supplied the sand material to the delta was the river basin upstream from the Kapchugay gorge of the Narat Tube ridge. According to one of the possible scenarios the sandy accumulation occurred in one of the stages of Late Pleistocene glaciation (presumably during the high Caspian transgression - the Early Khvalyn’ marine palaeobasin, around 30-20 ka BP) under favorable conditions for intensive periglacial denudation of the sandstones of the ridge and deltaic sandy sedimentation. According to another version of the hypothesis the Sarykum sands are deltaic formation of the Late Khazar (Caspian) transgression epoch (around 120-75 ka BP).