научный журнал по истории и историческим наукам Российская археология ISSN: 0869-6063

Архив научных статейиз журнала «Российская археология»


    КОРОБОВ Д.С. — 2004 г.


    ОРЛОВСКАЯ Л.Б., ЧЕРНЫХ Е.Н. — 2004 г.

    Presently 189 calibrated radiocarbon dates are available for the many burial complexes of the Pit-Grave kurgan community (tab. 1, 2). These mortuary remains are distributed over a very vast region of the Eurasian steppes stretching from the southern Urals in the east to the Danube in the west and encompassing an area of more than 2 million square kilometres. The geographical distribution of the dated complexes is not uniform (Fig. 1, 2), and only three territorial groups have enough dates for correct chronological conclusions: 1) the Dnepr-Bug steppe; 2) the Kalmykia-Don-Donets basins and 3) the Lower Danube-Dnestr basins (Fig. 2). On the basis of the available dates, the chronological range of the Yamnaya community extends from 2950-2200 BC as a whole (68.2% sum probability). It is quite striking that the majority of the earliest dates come from all peripheral geographical groups (including the relatively few dates available for the Volga-Urals region). The central and most numerous dated complexes of the Dnepr-Bug region contain the largest share of the latest chronological values for the Pit-Grave community. The comparison of the Usatovo culture radiocarbon dates with those from the adjacent Lower Danube region demonstrates their overall contemporaneity (Fig. 3). The most interesting conclusion comes from the comparison of the Maikop culture dates (26 in all) with those of the Yamnaya community (Fig. 4). The sum probabilities of the Maikop dates reveal a clearly different chronological range and are considerebly earlier (3950-3300 BC) than those of the Yamnaya community. While this conclusion, which is based on a relatively limited number of dates for the Maikop culture sites, must still be regarded as preliminary, the currently available radiocarbon data strongly calls into question the place and time of emergence of the East-European steppe kurgan cultures.


    ОРЛОВСКАЯ Л.Б., ЧЕРНЫХ Е.Н. — 2004 г.

    Presently 126 calibrated radiocarbon dates are available for the many burial complexes of the Catacomb community (Tab. 1, 2). These mortuary remains are distributed over a very vast region of the Eurasian steppes stretching from the Kalmykia and the Lower Volga steppe in the east to the Bug, Dniester and Lower Danube in the west and encompassing an area up to 0.6-0.7 million square kilometers. The geographical distribution of the dated complexes is not uniform, and only three territorial groups have enough dates for correct chronological conclusions: I - the Dnepr-Bug steppe; II - the Don-Donets basins and III - the Lower Danube and Dniester basins (Fig. 1). The several Poltavka culture' complexes - only 15 radiocarbon dates - were included in our study (Fig. 1; Tab. 3 and 4). On the basis of the available dates, the chronological range of the Catacomb community extends from 2600-1950 BC as a whole (68.2% sum probability; Fig. 2). It is quite striking that the majority of the earliest dates come from the Don-Donets geographical group, and the Poltavka culture few dates aggregate demonstrates very early and synchronous with Pit-grave community position (Fig.2 and 6). Next remarkable feature is impressive overlapping of the chronological areas Pit-grave and Catacomb communities (Fig. 1 and 6) especially in the Don-Donets and Kalmykia regions (Fig. 4). The statistics of total aggregate radiocarbon dates (374 analyses) of EBA and MBA East-European steppe communities and cultures affords to propose the general picture of their radiocarbon chronology (Fig. 6).


    ОРЛОВСКАЯ Л.Б., ЧЕРНЫХ Е.Н. — 2004 г.

    The radiocarbon chronology of the Copper Age cultures of southeastern Europe was investigated within the borders of the Carpatho-Balkan metallurgical province (stretching from the Adriatic to the Volga basin; see fig. 1). This study was based on 455 calibrated 14C dates collected from 153 sites (both settlements and cemeteries). Three groups of cultures and communities were analyzed: 1) the block of the main Aeneolithic Carpatho-Balkan cultures: Karanovo V—Maritsa—Bojan, Karanovo VI—Gumelnitsa—(Varna), Tiszapolgar—Bodrogkeresztur, Butmir, Vinča C-D, Sitagroi III, Krivodol—Sălkutsa and others (comprising 253 dates from 70 sites; see tabl. 1); 2) the eastern periphery of the central Carpatho-Balkan cultures — Cucuteni—Tripolye community (86 dates from 49 sites; see tabl. 2); and 3) the block of the East European pastoral communities: Dnepr-Donets, Sredni Stog, Khvalynsk, Rakushechny Yar and others (116 dates from 37 sites; see tabl. 3). The results of the analyses are shown in figures 2—6. Special attention should be devoted to the differences between the character and form of the sum probabilities distribution of 14C dates in the abovementioned complexes of every group that is clear on the basis of the comparison of the frequency polygons (see figures 2—5 and also 6). The picture that is obtained establishes new chronological estimates for these cultures and communities. This last aspect is particularly important for the steppe cultures and for the Tripolye A complex (see fig. 4 and 5) where the spatial-temporal parameters have been unclear.


    ТАИРОВ А.Д. — 2004 г.

    The author presents a review of the finds of the battle belts furnished with metal plaques-settings originating from the Northern and Central Asia and attributed to the early Saki. All the belts are divided into two groups: 1) the belts with the rectangular settings, and 2) those with X-shaped ones. It is pointed out that the tradition of decorating leather belts with metal first emerged in the early Saki time. In the 8 th - the 6 th cc. BC the belts decorated with the settings of the first type were popular. The belts with the settings of the second type came into being in the second part of the 6 th c. BC and functioned till the early 5 th c. BC. In the second part of the 6 th c. BC metal settings were replaced with the plaques of different shapes made of metal, wood, or antler.


    МОЧАЛОВ О.Д. — 2004 г.

    The article is devoted the rare ceramic shapes of the Volga-Ural region dated to the Bronze Age. The history of the beakers in this region is traditionally started from the end of the Late Bronze Age, and the vessels are considered to be have been influenced by Andronovo cultural unity. The study of the Middle Bronze Age pottery has let to identify about 40 vessels, which may be attributed to beaker-shaped or early beakers. They have got isolated bottom, profiled body and open mouth. The earliest beakers were found at the Middle Bronze Age sites in the Lower Volga region. Some beakers are known from the sites of late stage of Abashevo culture in the South Ural. Beakers are most numerous at Sintashta sites, while they are few at early Alakul and early Timber-grave (Srubnaya) sites. The beaker-shaped vessels do not have the same standard (except Sintashta cemetery). Frequently beakers are found in infant graves located in southern part of cemeteries. Further distribution of beakers is connected with period of Final Bronze Age when Andronovo traditions reached as far as the Dnieper. The beakers had acquired developed shape and are met with at the settlements. The discussed vessels of the Azov Sea region and the Dnieper basin are evidently related not only with eastern but with western and local traditions as well. Thus, early beakers are spread in the Volga-Ural region during the transitional period from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age, they concentrated in the South Ural and adjacent territories. Their emergence there may be considered as the manifest of local cultural-genetic process under the influence (and in interaction) of southern cultures of Central Asia and the Caucasus where the beaker pottery shapes had originated. The links of early Volga-Ural beakers with western and northern cultures (Catacomb-grave, Fatyanovo, etc.) and Siberia have not been confirmed.


    ВОЛОКИТИН А.В., КАРМАНОВ В.Н. — 2004 г.

    The theme of the paper is the Early Neolithic in the European North-East. The authors single out three cultural traditions of different origin: the sites of Dutovo I type, those of En'tyj type, and Cherny Bor group. The first two cultural units are related by their genesis with the Volga and Oka interfluve. The origin of Cherny Bor group may be associated with the cultures spread over the large territory from the Kama basin to the Upper Volga. Probably, small groups of hunters penetrated into the region in question in the Early Neolithic and remained isolated there from one another. Evidently, their appearance in the territory correlated with seasonal economic activity. Therefore they did not participate in formation of the cultural units of the Middle and Late Neolithic in the North-East of Europe.


    ФОРМОЗОВ А.А. — 2004 г.


    ПОЛУБОЯРИНОВА М.Д. — 2004 г.



    An important site - the sanctuary Shilda has been investigated in eastern Transcaucasus. It is attested to the cultural circle of the sites situated in the basins of the rivers Iori and Alazani. The recovered archaeological material is valuable and varied, it includes weaponry and household utensils, ornaments and pieces of movable plastic art, pottery. The metal objects are interpreted as votive ones; they represent the production of local metallurgy and metalworking. Basically, the artefacts have been manufactured of tin-bronzes with the admixture of antimony. Architectural characteristics of the site together with the morphological and stylistic analysis of the obtained material show that the sanctuary was consecrated to a deity of fertility. The site functioned from the 14 th to the 8 th cc. BC. During the period of its existence the sanctuary Shilda was integrated into the cultural zone of the Caucasus, Western Asia and the Mediterranean.


    КОЗЕНКОВА В.И. — 2004 г.


    СОРОКИН А.Н. — 2004 г.

    Analysis of sources reveals that we mostly deal not with mixing traditions of ancient population, but with the tradition of mixed material. The cultural diversity observed in East European marshy woodlands is practically always an apparent phenomenon that emerges due to the mode of sources’ analysis and not to historical and cultural processes. The basic paradox of sources’ analysis is that archaeological sources are formed not only in the course of human life, but, to a greater extent, after the cultural deposit at the site had already been formed. The moment of “life-time formation of a source” is in fact the starting point of the sequence of the source’s metamorphoses. As far as the Holocene sites are concerned, the basic mechanisms that influenced a “potential source” are soil-formation processes. It is they that generate new natural and “cultural” state of the site. In creating many-cultural associations of key importance was the phenomenon of naturation. It is responsible for the “cultural diversity” registered all over the European marshy woodlands. Many-cultural “associations” in fact caused by naturation are often recorded archaeologically. At the same time, this is the first step in constructing wrong historical picture. There are no reliable grounds to suppose interaction of ancient population in the Mesolithic period, we have at our disposal only specific features of the sources. Mechanical mixing of materials as a result of soil processes is the objective situation, which should be taken into account while suggesting any archaeological reconstructions. Only the comprehensive view on the site’s specifics and its reliable position as a historical source can serve as a ground for ethno-cultural hypotheses in archaeology.


    СОРОКИН А.Н. — 2004 г.

    The theses concerning the contacts of population are commonly met in literature. Really, archaeological material provides favourable grounds for the conclusions on “mixture of traditions”. But two questions naturally arise: 1) is it not too often that different archaeological materials discovered together are interpreted as the evidence of the population contacts, and 2) can such observations be explained in another, quite ordinary way, for example, as the “artefacts' contacts” caused by the material mechanically mixed up? Any archaeological site is formed as a socio-natural object, it exists as a purely natural structure until it undergoes excavations. Thus, natural environment should be viewed as the key factor both in the site genesis and its “post-positional” existence. The data of soil science and palaeogeography accumulated by now give grounds to state that the influence of environment leads not only to considerable transformations of the archaeological cultural deposits, but affects the very nature of the site as an archaeological source. The associations of syncretic character emerge mainly not as a result of interaction of the ancient population, but are formed by mechanical mixing up artefacts. The author considers natural processes as global and objective phenomenon with standard consequence of mechanically mixed up archaeological materials, the leading role of soil transformations is stressed. Their negative influence is not just of regular and global character, they are the basic reason of the metamorphoses archaeological sites undergo.


    КОВАЛЬ В.Ю. — 2004 г.

    In the article the author presents results of the excavations conducted at the open settlement situated near the village Sosnovka on the River Oka bank (Moscow region). The investigated construction has yielded handmade and early wheel-made pottery of the middle and the second part of the 11 th c. Hand-made pottery was manufactured according to the traditions characteristic of the Slavs settling the lands from the Desna basin to the Upper Don basin - the Severyanians and the Vyatichians. As for wheel-made pottery, it strongly differs from hand-made vessels in shapes, composition of clay paste, and decoration. The origin of this manufacturing tradition has not been cleared yet.


    СКРЖИНСКАЯ М.В. — 2004 г.

    The author suggests the reconstruction of the programs of the musical and athletic competitions held in the classical states of the North Pontic area and comes to the conclusion that all possible contests took place there, including the all-Greece games. The reconstruction is grounded by the data from the local epigraphic sources and the analysis of the images decorating the pieces of figurative art. The analogies are pointed out concerning well-known all-Greek games, where the citizens of the North Pontic towns were invited. The prizes athletes were rewarded and the honours done to the winners are also considered. Special attention is paid to the competitions in gymnasiums and the games at Achilles' Dromos. The festivity dedicated to Achilles - the hero extremely popular on the Lower Bug was first of purely local character and included only races, then the program was gradually extended, other sports being included, probably, musical agons were organised as well. Equestrian races were considered the most prestigious. In the early Hellenistic period the Achillei had got the status of Panhellenic festivity, probably, they were arranged following the order to the Pythian games.



    In the paper the authors present the preliminary results of the investigations of the medival settlement and cultural landscape in one of the regions within the historical centre of Suzdal land. The discussed area of the River Nerl' basin and its right tributaries Rivers Irmes and Kamenka once formed the historical core of North-Eastern Rus'. The series of field works carried out in the above region in 2001 and 2002 included comprehensive survey of the territory covering an area around 90 sq. km, and compiling the detailed archaeological map designed to mirror the characteristic features of dwelling sites' spatial structure. Totally 59 dwelling sites have been revealed within the investigated territory, their chronology ranging from the second part of the l st mill. till the first part of the 2 nd mill. AD. The most striking feature of the region is extremely high density of medieval popylation, as fur as Northern Rus' is concerned. The total area of the dwelling sites with the cultural deposits dated from the 12 th - the 13 th cc. makes around 160 ha; that is, in the discussed period in the investigated territory of the Suzdal Field region on the average on each 2 sq. km one dwelling site existed. As early as the late l st mill. AD the network of dwelling sites began to spread over the entire territory of the Field region, including the small rivers' valleys and the watersheds. The basic elements of this system were large sites, or the clusters of closely disposed sites situated at a distance of 1.5 - 2 km from one another. Archaeological works have shown stability in development of the network of rural dwelling sites in the territory of the Suzdal Field region during the whole period of the Middle Ages and the early New Times. This pattern had suffered little from the crises of the second part of the 13 th c. and the second part of the 16 th - the early 17 th cc. The basic points of the settlement pattern formed in the 10 th - the 12 th cc. continued to function in the post-Mongol period as well.


    КОЛЫЗИН А.М. — 2004 г.

    Study of medieval keys and locks, found during archaeological excavations in the Kremlin, shows that in their everyday life Muscovites used nearly all types of locks and keys known in other Russian towns. Certain types were used in Moscow at the same time as in Novgorod. A-type keys, which had been in use till the mid 12 th century, haven't been found in cultural layers of Moscow. This fact proves that the town itself appeared somewhere in the mid 12 th century, which doesn't contradict written sources and archaeological data.


    КОНЬКОВА Л.В., КОРОЛЬ Г.Г. — 2004 г.

    A collection kept in the State Historic Museum (Moscow) comprises, in particular, some separate finds that according to the register originate from the South of Eastern Europe. In the collection there are medieval strap decorations of the types unknown among East European materials. Comparative analysis of the finds has been performed; it included investigation of their morphology, technology of production, and ornamentation system. Cultural attribution and chronological position of six artefacts from the collection has been established, the authors present exhaustive information concerning identical or very similar finds of the Sayan-Altai provenance. It makes no difference if the information on the findspot of the discussed objects is reliable or not, their historic interpretation evidences that these items of the Sayan-Altai origin of the 1 st-the 2 nd millennia AD had not really influenced the fashion in manufacturing the strap decoration of the kind in Eastern Europe in the period in question.


    ТАРАСОВ А.Ю. — 2004 г.

    The paper deals with the raw materials used for manufacturing large stone wood-working implements (macrotools) during the Neolithic - the Early Iron Age in the territory of Russian Karelia. The quality of these materials (slates and siltstones) can be mostly characterised by their hardness, grain, and cleavage property. The general features of the raw material resources of some Karelian culture were evaluated using the method of correspondence analysis. The analysis suggests that since the Early Neolithic (the sperrings culture) till the Chalcolithic (the sites containing asbestos-tempered pottery) a shift from utilising low-quality material to that based on high-quality one took place. Changes in raw material resources are of importance, as far as the information on social development of the early inhabitants of the discussed territory is concerned.


    СМИРНОВ А.С. — 2004 г.

    The article deals with the problem of presentation and analysis of the stratigraphic and planigraphic data obtained while archaeological investigation of the Neolithic sites. As an instrument of investigation the program product “Archeo” has been used. It works in AutoCAD automatic projecting environment. Analysis has been performed at a number of sites of the Upper Volga culture considered in special literature as multilayer sites. They form the basis for working out chronological sequence of this Early Neolithic culture. Having carried out the investigation, the author came to the conclusion that at present there are no sites of the Upper Volga culture with clearly expressed stratigraphy. This means that the problem of correlation of the associations with stroke and comb decorated pottery cannot be solved, though the existence of two pottery associations has been confirmed. The presented work stresses the urgent necessity to pay more attention to the real data bases of the archaeological investigations, working out modern methods of analysis aimed at minimizing subjective interpretation. They should enable objective and grounded presentation of facts and their cross-checking.